Air Plan Approval; Ohio; Revisions to NOX

 
CONTENT
Federal Register, Volume 84 Issue 124 (Thursday, June 27, 2019)
[Federal Register Volume 84, Number 124 (Thursday, June 27, 2019)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 30681-30686]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2019-13640]
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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
40 CFR Part 52
[EPA-R05-OAR-2018-0125; FRL-9995-69-Region 5]
Air Plan Approval; Ohio; Revisions to NOX SIP Call and CAIR Rules
AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
ACTION: Proposed rule.
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SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to
approve under the Clean Air Act (CAA) a request from the Ohio
Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) to revise the Ohio State
Implementation Plan (SIP) to incorporate revisions to Ohio
Administrative Code (OAC) Chapter 3745-14 regarding the Nitrogen Oxides
(NOX) SIP Call and the removal of OAC Chapter 3745-109
regarding the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). This SIP revision would
ensure continued compliance by Electric Generating Units (EGUs) and
large non-EGUs with the requirements of the NOX SIP Call.
DATES: Comments must be received on or before July 29, 2019.
ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-R05-
OAR-2018-0125 at https://www.regulations.gov, or via email to
[email protected]. For comments submitted at Regulations.gov,
follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Once submitted,
comments cannot be edited or removed from Regulations.gov. For either
manner of submission, EPA may publish any comment received to its
public docket.
[[Page 30682]]
Do not submit electronically any information you consider to be
Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose
disclosure is restricted by statute. Multimedia submissions (audio,
video, etc.) must be accompanied by a written comment. The written
comment is considered the official comment and should include
discussion of all points you wish to make. EPA will generally not
consider comments or comment contents located outside of the primary
submission (i.e., on the web, cloud, or other file sharing system). For
additional submission methods, please contact the person identified in
the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. For the full EPA public
comment policy, information about CBI or multimedia submissions, and
general guidance on making effective comments, please visit https://www2.epa.gov/dockets/commenting-epa-dockets.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric Svingen, Environmental Engineer,
Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-
18J), Environmental Protection Agency, Region 5, 77 West Jackson
Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604, (312) 353-4489,
[email protected].
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document whenever ``we,''
``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. This supplementary information
section is arranged as follows:
I. What is the background of this SIP submission?
II. What is EPA's analysis of this SIP submission?
III. What action is EPA taking?
IV. Incorporation by Reference
V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews
I. What is the background of this SIP submission?
    Under CAA section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I), called the good neighbor
provision, states are required to address interstate transport of air
pollution. Specifically, the good neighbor provision provides that each
state's SIP must contain provisions prohibiting emissions from within
that state from contributing significantly to nonattainment of the
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), or interfering with
maintenance of the NAAQS, in any other state.
    On October 27, 1998, EPA published the NOX SIP Call,
which required eastern states, including Ohio, to submit SIPs that
prohibit excessive emissions of ozone season NOX by
implementing statewide emissions budgets (63 FR 57356). The
NOX SIP Call addressed the good neighbor provision for the
1979 ozone NAAQS and was designed to mitigate the impact of transported
NOX emissions, one of the precursors of ozone. EPA developed
the NOX Budget Trading Program, an allowance trading program
that states could adopt to meet their obligations under the
NOX SIP Call. This trading program allowed certain sources
to participate in a regional cap and trade program: EGUs with capacity
greater than 25 megawatts; and large non-EGUs, such as boilers and
turbines, with a rated heat input greater than 250 million British
thermal units per hour (MMBtu/hr). The NOX SIP Call also
identified potential reductions from Portland cement kilns and
stationary internal combustion engines. In fulfillment of the
requirements of the NOX SIP Call, Ohio EPA promulgated OAC
Chapter 3745-14 which, among other things, required EGUs and large non-
EGUs in the state to participate in the NOX Budget Trading
Program. On August 5, 2003, EPA published an action approving this
initial version of OAC Chapter 3745-14 into the Ohio SIP (68 FR 46089).
EPA has subsequently approved revised portions of OAC Chapter 3745-14
into the SIP, with the most recent revision published on November 14,
2013 (78 FR 68367).
    On May 12, 2005, EPA published CAIR, which required eastern states,
including Ohio, to submit SIPs that prohibited emissions consistent
with annual and ozone season NOX budgets and annual sulfur
dioxide (SO2) budgets (70 FR 25152). CAIR addressed the good
neighbor provision for the 1997 ozone NAAQS and 1997 fine particulate
matter (PM2.5) NAAQS and was designed to mitigate the impact
of transported NOX emissions, a precursor of ozone as well
as PM2.5, as well as transported SO2 emissions,
another precursor of PM2.5. Like the NOX SIP
Call, CAIR also established several trading programs that states could
use as mechanisms to comply with the budgets. When the CAIR trading
program for ozone season NOX was implemented beginning in
2009, EPA discontinued administration of the NOX Budget
Trading Program, but the requirements of the NOX SIP Call
continued to apply. To meet the requirements of CAIR, Ohio EPA
promulgated OAC Chapter 3745-109, which required EGUs to participate in
the CAIR annual SO2 and annual and ozone season
NOX trading programs. Participation by EGUs in the CAIR
trading program for ozone season NOX addressed the state's
obligation under the NOX SIP Call for those units. Ohio EPA
also opted to incorporate large non-EGUs previously regulated under OAC
Chapter 3745-14 into OAC Chapter 3745-109, to meet the obligations of
the NOX SIP Call with respect to those units through the
CAIR trading program as well. On September 25, 2009, EPA published an
action approving OAC Chapter 3745-109 into the Ohio SIP (74 FR 48857).
    The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia
Circuit (D.C. Circuit) initially vacated CAIR in 2008, but ultimately
remanded the rule to EPA without vacatur to preserve the environmental
benefits provided by CAIR. North Carolina v. EPA, 531 F.3d 896,
modified, 550 F.3d 1176 (2008). The ruling allowed CAIR to remain in
effect temporarily until a replacement rule consistent with the court's
opinion was developed. While EPA worked on developing a replacement
rule, the CAIR program continued as planned with the NOX
annual and ozone season programs beginning in 2009 and the
SO2 annual program beginning in 2010.
    On August 8, 2011, acting on the D.C. Circuit's remand, EPA
published the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) to replace CAIR
and to address the good neighbor provision for the 1997 ozone NAAQS,
the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS, and the 2006 PM2.5 NAAQS
(76 FR 48208). Through Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs), CSAPR
required EGUs in eastern states, including Ohio, to meet annual and
ozone season NOX budgets and annual SO2 budgets
implemented through new trading programs. CSAPR also contained
provisions that would sunset CAIR-related obligations on a schedule
coordinated with the implementation of the CSAPR compliance
requirements. Participation by a state's EGUs in the CSAPR trading
program for ozone season NOX generally addressed the state's
obligation under the NOX SIP Call for EGUs. However, CSAPR
did not initially contain provisions allowing states to incorporate
large non-EGUs into that trading program to meet the requirements of
the NOX SIP Call for non-EGUs.
    CSAPR was intended to become effective January 1, 2012; however,
the timing of CSAPR's implementation was impacted by subsequent
litigation in which the D.C. Circuit stayed implementation of the rule
pending judicial review. See Per Curium Order, EME Homer City
Generation, L.P. v. EPA, No. 11-1302 (December 30, 2011), ECF No.
1350421. After subsequent litigation,\1\ the court granted EPA's
[[Page 30683]]
motion to lift the stay \2\ and, on December 3, 2014, EPA issued an
interim final rule, setting the updated effective date of CSAPR as
January 1, 2015 (79 FR 71663). In accordance with the interim final
rule, EPA stopped administering the CAIR trading programs with respect
to emissions occurring after December 31, 2014, and EPA began
implementing CSAPR on January 1, 2015.\3\
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    \1\ EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA, 696 F.3d 7, 31 (D.C.
Cir. 2012) (EME Homer City I) (vacating and remanding CSAPR); EPA v.
EME Homer City Generation, L.P. 572 U.S. 489 (2014) (reversing the
D.C. Circuit decision and remanding for further proceedings).
    \2\ Per Curium Order, EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA,
No. 11-1302 (D.C. Cir. Oct. 23, 2014) ECF No. 1518738. The D.C.
Circuit subsequently issued its decision on remand from the Supreme
Court, largely affirming CSAPR but remanding certain states budgets
to EPA for reconsideration. EME Homer City Generation, L.P. v. EPA,
No. 795 F.3d 118 (EME Homer City II).
    \3\ EPA solicited comment on the interim final rule and
subsequently issued a final rule affirming the amended compliance
schedule after consideration of comments received. 81 FR 13275
(March 14, 2016).
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    On October 26, 2016, EPA published the CSAPR Update, which
established a new ozone season NOX trading program for EGUs
in eastern states, including Ohio, to address the good neighbor
provision for the 2008 ozone NAAQS (81 FR 74504). As under CSAPR,
participation by a state's EGUs in the new CSAPR trading program for
ozone season NOX generally addressed the state's obligation
under the NOX SIP Call for EGUs. The CSAPR Update also
expanded options available to states for meeting NOX SIP
Call requirements for large non-EGUs by allowing states to incorporate
those units into the new trading program.
    After evaluating the various options available following CSAPR
Update, Ohio EPA chose to meet the ongoing NOX SIP Call
requirements for existing and new large non-EGUs by modifying its
existing regulations at OAC Chapter 3745-14 to make the portion of the
budget assigned to large non-EGUs under that program enforceable
without an allowance trading mechanism.
    Specifically, while Ohio rescinded portions of its NOX
Budget Trading Program rules under OAC Chapter 3745-14 pertaining to
individual unit allowance allocations and trading, the state retained
and amended the provisions of those rules pertaining to applicability,
the statewide emissions budgets for EGUs and large non-EGUs, and
monitoring and reporting under 40 CFR part 75. Ohio also retained a
provision of the trading program rules exempting EGUs covered by a more
recent ozone season NOX trading program from coverage under
the state's amended program, but updated the provision to base the
exemption on participation in the CSAPR Update trading program for
ozone season NOX instead of the corresponding CAIR trading
program. In addition, Ohio retained other rules under OAC Chapter 3745-
14 addressing NOX emissions from cement kilns and stationary
internal combustion engines outside the NOX Budget Trading
Program. Finally, Ohio also rescinded its CAIR trading program rules in
OAC Chapter 3745-109 in full.
    As described in its February 5, 2018 submission, Ohio EPA invited
public comments regarding its changes to OAC Chapter 3745-14 and OAC
Chapter 3745-109. Ohio EPA received one supportive comment, as well as
one adverse comment regarding Ohio's retention of part 75 monitoring
requirements.
    On March 8, 2019, EPA finalized updates to the NOX SIP
Call rules to allow states to meet the NOX SIP Call's
monitoring requirements using approaches other than part 75 monitoring
(84 FR 8422). Ohio's February 5, 2018, submission predates EPA's
updates to the NOX SIP Call's monitoring requirements, and,
therefore, does not include changes that allow its sources to meet the
NOX SIP Call's monitoring requirements using approaches
other than part 75 monitoring. EPA is assisting Ohio EPA with preparing
a revised submission that would make other monitoring approaches
available to Ohio sources, and EPA will address such a submission in a
future rulemaking.
II. What is EPA's analysis of this SIP submission?
    Ohio's February 5, 2018 submission requests that EPA update Ohio's
SIP to reflect the revised rules at OAC Chapter 3745-14 and the
rescission of rules at OAC Chapter 3745-109. Additionally, this
submission includes a demonstration under Section 110(l) of the CAA
intended to show that this SIP revision does not interfere with any
applicable CAA requirement.
A. Revised and Rescinded State Rules
    Given EPA's replacement of CAIR with CSAPR and EPA's
discontinuation of administration of the NOX Budget Trading
Program, Ohio updated its NOX SIP Call rules at OAC Chapter
3745-14 to address the NOX SIP Call's requirements with
respect to existing and new large non-EGUs in a manner that does not
rely on the administration of a trading program. Ohio also rescinded
its CAIR rules at OAC Chapter 3745-109. Both sets of rule changes have
a state-effective date of January 28, 2018. Ohio's February 5, 2018,
submission includes a request that EPA approve these updated rules into
its SIP.
    The state regulations addressing the NOX SIP Call were
formerly established at OAC rules 3745-14-01 through 3745-14-12.
Because EPA discontinued administration of this trading program in
2009, Ohio has rescinded certain portions of these rules that can no
longer be implemented. Specifically, Ohio rescinded OAC rules 3745-14-
02, 3745-14-05, 3745-14-06, 3745-14-07, 3745-14-09, and 3745-14-10
pertaining to individual unit allowance allocations, trading, opt-in,
and other non-implementable provisions under the NOX Budget
Trading Program. However, for purposes of continued compliance with the
requirements of the NOX SIP Call, Ohio retained and amended
OAC rules 3745-14-01, 3745-14-03, 3745-14-04, and 3745-14-08 pertaining
to applicability, the statewide emissions budgets for EGUs and large
non-EGUs, and part 75 monitoring and reporting under the former trading
program. Ohio also retained OAC rules 3745-14-11 and 3745-14-12
regarding cement kilns and stationary internal combustion engines
outside the former trading program. The state's amendments to OAC rule
3745-14-01 require Ohio EPA to ensure that the statewide budget for
large non-EGUs will continue to be met in the absence of a trading
program mechanism. Table 1 presents a summary of Ohio's revisions to
OAC Chapter 3745-14.
                Table 1--Revisions to OAC Chapter 3745-14
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             Rule                        Title               Action
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3745-14-01....................  Definitions and         Amended.
                                 General Provisions.
3745-14-02....................  The NOX Authorized      Rescinded.
                                 Account
                                 Representatives.
3745-14-03....................  The NOX Budget Permit   Amended.
                                 Requirements.
3745-14-04....................  Compliance              Amended.
                                 Certification.
3745-14-05....................  NOX Allowance           Rescinded.
                                 Allocations.
[[Page 30684]]

3745-14-06....................  The NOX Allowance       Rescinded.
                                 Tracking System.
3745-14-07....................  NOX Allowance           Rescinded.
                                 Transfers.
3745-14-08....................  Monitoring and          Amended.
                                 Reporting.
3745-14-09....................  NOX Budget Opt-in       Rescinded.
                                 Units.
3745-14-10....................  Alternative Compliance  Rescinded.
                                 Plans.
3745-14-11....................  Portland Cement Kilns.  No change.
3745-14-12....................  Stationary Internal     No change.
                                 Combustion Engines.
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    Specifically, these amendments include: Moving the statewide
NOX budgets for large EGUs and large non-EGUs from OAC rule
3745-14-05, which is being rescinded, to OAC rule 3745-14-01; adding
provisions requiring Ohio EPA to conduct an annual review to determine
if the statewide budget for large non-EGUs is met, and providing
procedures should the budget be exceeded; removing unit allowance
allocation and trading provisions; specifying non-EGU NOX
budget units subject to OAC Chapter 3745-14; updating the applicability
exception for EGUs to reference CSAPR instead of CAIR; removing the
retired unit exemption, as it is no longer applicable; removing
unnecessary definitions; adding a definition for ``designated
representative''; replacing ``NOX budget trading program''
with ``NOX budget program'' to reflect the absence of
trading; replacing ``NOX Authorized Account Representative''
with ``designated representative'', the term used in part 75
monitoring; updating referenced material; eliminating requirements for
a NOX budget permit to be included as a complete and
segregable portion of a title V or non-title V permit; requiring the
owner or operator of a NOX budget unit to submit an
application for a title V or non-title V operating permit for each
subject source; revising compliance certification provisions to remove
unnecessary provisions; eliminating the requirement for the compliance
certification to be submitted to EPA; updating monitoring and reporting
provisions, most notably to remove unnecessary references to opt-in
permits and early reduction credits; and eliminating NOX
budget opt-in provisions, as they are no longer applicable.
    Further, the state's regulations for participation in the CAIR
trading programs for SO2 and annual and ozone season
NOX were formerly established at OAC Chapter 3745-109.
Because EPA discontinued administration of the CAIR trading programs
after 2014, Ohio has rescinded these rules that can no longer be
implemented.
    First, EPA proposes to approve the rescission of the trading
program-related portions of Ohio's NOX Budget Trading
Program rules and all of Ohio's CAIR trading program regulations.
Because EPA no longer administers the NOX Budget Trading
Program and the CAIR trading programs, and therefore Ohio's own
regulations related to these trading programs cannot be implemented,
removing the trading program provisions of Ohio's NOX SIP
Call rules and all of the CAIR rules from the state's SIP will have no
consequences for any source's operations or emissions or for the
attainment and maintenance of the NAAQS in any area, now or in the
future. Accordingly, removal of these rules does not impact the state's
continued compliance with section CAA 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) for any NAAQS.
    Further, EPA proposes to find that Ohio's revisions to OAC rules
3745-14-01, 3745-14-03, 3745-14-04, and 3745-14-08 are consistent with
Ohio's obligation to demonstrate continued compliance with
NOX SIP Call requirements for large non-EGUs and EPA's
discontinuation of the trading program under the NOX SIP
Call. Under the ongoing requirements of the NOX SIP Call,
the Ohio SIP must: (1) Include enforceable control measures for ozone
season NOX mass emissions from existing and new large EGUs
and large non-EGUs and (2) require those sources to monitor and report
ozone season NOX emissions, which may be in accordance with
part 75. See 40 CFR 51.121(f)(2) and (i).
    With respect to the NOX SIP Call requirement that the
state have enforceable control measures to limit ozone season
NOX, Ohio is currently subject to the Federal CSAPR Update
trading program for ozone season NOX that addresses these
requirements for existing and new EGUs, but because Ohio's non-EGUs are
not subject to that CSAPR trading program, the state must meet this
requirement for non-EGUs through other SIP provisions. Ohio's revisions
to OAC rule 3745-14-01 prohibit ozone season NOX emissions
from existing and new large non-EGUs from exceeding 4,028 tons, the
portion of the state's NOX SIP Call budget assigned to large
non-EGUs. Under the revisions at OAC rule 3745-14-01, Ohio will conduct
an annual review to ensure that the most recent ozone season emissions
from large non-EGUs remain below the statewide budget. Emissions
reported to EPA from the state's large non-EGUs for the 2018 ozone
season were 543 tons, well below this limit.
    As to the requirement for sources to monitor and report ozone
season NOX emissions under the NOX SIP Call,
these SIP revisions would preserve the state's current requirements for
existing and new EGUs and non-EGUs to monitor and report their ozone
season NOX emissions, as required under the NOX
SIP Call. Ohio's revisions at OAC Chapter 3745-14 continue to require
that non-EGUs monitor and report ozone season NOX emissions
under part 75, and the state's EGUs are subject to equivalent
monitoring requirements under the CSAPR federal trading programs. Thus,
the revisions to OAC Chapter 3745-14 and removal of OAC Chapter 3745-
109 proposed for approval into the SIP in this action will not
substantively alter the current monitoring requirements for any EGUs or
large non-EGUs in the state covered by the NOX SIP Call. If,
as anticipated, Ohio EPA submits to EPA a SIP revision that would make
other monitoring approaches available to large non-EGUs, the monitoring
requirements under the NOX SIP Call will be the subject of a
future rulemaking.
    As revised, OAC rules 3745-14-01, 3745-14-03, 3745-14-04 and 3745-
14-08 meet the state's ongoing obligations under the NOX SIP
Call with respect to existing and new large non-EGUs. Specifically, the
revised rules meet the requirement under 40 CFR 51.121(f)(2) for
enforceable limits on the units' collective emissions of ozone season
NOX mass emissions and the requirement under 40 CFR
51.121(i)(1) for monitoring sufficient to ensure compliance with those
limits. The state's EGUs are currently complying with their analogous
NOX SIP Call requirements through participation in
[[Page 30685]]
the CSAPR Update trading program for ozone season NOX.
    EPA is proposing to find that Ohio EPA's revisions at OAC Chapter
3745-14 and removal of OAC Chapter 3745-109 are consistent with
applicable requirements under the CAA and the NOX SIP Call,
and EPA is therefore proposing to approve these changes into the Ohio
SIP.
    Additionally, the revisions at OAC rules 3745-14-01, 3745-14-03,
and 3745-14-08 include minor amendments that were effective in 2015 and
2018 but were not submitted for SIP approval because they were not
substantive changes. EPA's approval of Ohio's revised rules with state-
effective date January 28, 2018, would also approve these minor
amendments into the SIP. These revisions include: Updating hyperlinks
and references, correcting typographical and formatting errors, and
clarifying procedures for permit applications.
B. Section 110(l) Demonstration
    Ohio EPA's submission includes a demonstration intended to show
that its SIP revision is approvable under Section 110(l) of the CAA;
such a demonstration is sometimes called an anti-backsliding
demonstration. Section 110(l) provides that EPA cannot approve a SIP
revision if the revision would interfere with any applicable CAA
requirement. EPA will approve a SIP revision that removes or modifies
control measures in the SIP only after the state has demonstrated that
such removal or modification would not interfere with attainment and
maintenance of the NAAQS, reasonable further progress (RFP), or any
other applicable requirement of the CAA. EPA generally considers
whether the SIP revision would preserve or improve the status quo in
air quality.
    In this action, EPA is proposing to approve Ohio's request to
approve updated rules related to the NOX SIP Call into its
SIP and to approve removal of CAIR rules from its SIP. This proposed
action would remove from the SIP certain provisions relating to the
NOX Budget Trading Program and replace those provisions with
new rules at OAC Chapter 3745-14 that address the NOX SIP
Call's requirements with respect to existing and new large non-EGUs in
a manner that does not rely on the administration of a trading program.
It would also remove the CAIR rules at OAC Chapter 3745-109.
    For the reasons explained below, EPA's proposed action to update
the provisions relating to the NOX Budget Trading Program
and NOX SIP call is in accordance with CAA section 110(l).
As explained above, EPA has not implemented the NOX Budget
Trading Program since 2009 and it could not be implemented in the
future. Moreover, this action would only remove the provisions that
implement the trading program. It would neither alter the
NOX SIP Call emission budgets that limit emissions in the
state nor alter the requirement for sources to monitor and report ozone
season NOX emissions under the NOX SIP Call. This
action would also add to the SIP a new enforceable measure to replace
the defunct NOX Budget Trading Program and ensure compliance
with the NOX SIP Call budgets. This new measure is
quantifiable, permanent, enforceable and contemporaneous. Importantly,
the new measure ensures compliance with the existing NOX SIP
Call budgets and thus will preserve the status quo in air quality. For
these reasons, we conclude that the revisions will not interfere with
attainment and maintenance of the NAAQS, RFP, or any other applicable
requirement of the CAA.
    Additionally, EPA's proposed action to remove the CAIR rules at OAC
Chapter 3745-109 is consistent with the requirements of CAA 110(l). As
explained above, EPA has not administered the CAIR trading programs
since 2015, when the CSAPR trading programs replaced the CAIR trading
programs. Likewise, the related provisions in Ohio's SIP have not been
implemented since 2015 and cannot be implemented now or in the future.
As such, removing the CAIR rules from the state's SIP will have no
consequences for any source's operations or emissions.
    Current emission levels in Ohio further demonstrate that the CAIR
trading programs are not influencing and would not influence affected
sources' operations. As shown in Table 2 below, current emissions
levels are significantly below the CAIR budgets even while the CAIR
trading programs are no longer being implemented.
                    Table 2--Comparison of Ohio CAIR Budgets and 2018 Emissions, in Tons \1\
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                                                                   CAIR Phase 1    CAIR Phase 2        2018
                         Emissions type                               budget          budget         Emissions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NOX ozone season................................................          49,694          43,975          17,949
NOX annual......................................................         108,667          90,556          50,629
SO2 annual......................................................         333,520         233,464          86,570
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\1\ Ohio's budgets under CAIR are from EPA's approval of OAC Chapter 3745-109 into the SIP on September 25, 2009
  (74 FR 48857). Ozone season NOX budgets under CAIR are the combined EGU and non-EGU budgets. Emissions data
  from 2018 are from EPA's Air Markets Program Database at https://ampd.epa.gov.
    Importantly, EPA was obligated by the D.C. Circuit remand of CAIR
to promulgate a new rule to replace CAIR. EPA addressed this judicial
remand with the promulgation of CSAPR. EGUs in Ohio are subject to FIPs
requiring the sources to participate in annual NOX, annual
SO2, and ozone season NOX\4\ Federal trading
programs under CSAPR and the CSAPR Update that limit emissions from
such sources in the state. EGUs continue to be subject to part 75
monitoring requirements under the current CSAPR trading program rules.
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    \4\ The D.C. Circuit ultimately remanded Ohio's CSAPR Phase 2
budget for ozone season NOX, finding that the rulemaking
record did not support EPA's determination of a transport obligation
under the 1997 ozone NAAQS for Ohio. EME Homer City Generation,
L.P., v. EPA, 795 F.3d 118, 129-30 (2015). In response, EPA withdrew
Ohio's remanded budget in the CSAPR Update rulemaking; concurrently,
however, EPA promulgated a new emission budget to address the 2008
ozone NAAQS, which replaced the invalidated CSAPR budget intended to
address the 1997 ozone NAAQS. 81 FR 74524. Thus, EGUs in Ohio remain
subject to a CSAPR trading program for ozone-season NOX.
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    For the reasons explained above, EPA is proposing to approve Ohio
EPA's SIP submission under section 110(l) of the CAA.
III. What action is EPA taking?
    EPA is proposing to approve Ohio EPA's request to modify its SIP to
include the revisions at OAC Chapter 3745-14 and to remove OAC Chapter
3745-109.
IV. Incorporation by Reference
    In this rule, EPA is proposing to include in a final EPA rule
regulatory text that includes incorporation by reference. In accordance
with
[[Page 30686]]
requirements of 1 CFR 51.5, EPA is proposing to incorporate by
reference OAC rules 3745-14-01, 3745-14-03, 3745-14-04, and 3745-14-08,
with a state effective date of January 28, 2018. EPA has made, and will
continue to make, these documents generally available through
www.regulations.gov and at the EPA Region 5 Office (please contact the
person identified in the For Further Information Contact section of
this preamble for more information).
    Also in this document, as described in the proposed amendments to
40 CFR part 52 set forth below, the EPA is proposing to remove
provisions of the EPA-Approved Illinois Regulations and Statutes from
the Illinois State Implementation Plan, which is incorporated by
reference in accordance with the requirements of 1 CFR part 51.
V. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews
    Under the CAA, the Administrator is required to approve a SIP
submission that complies with the provisions of the CAA and applicable
Federal regulations. 42 U.S.C. 7410(k); 40 CFR 52.02(a). Thus, in
reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state choices,
provided that they meet the criteria of the CAA. Accordingly, this
action merely approves state law as meeting Federal requirements and
does not impose additional requirements beyond those imposed by state
law. For that reason, this action:
     Is not a significant regulatory action subject to review
by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Orders 12866 (58
FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011);
     Is not an Executive Order 13771 (82 FR 9339, February 2,
2017) regulatory action because SIP approvals are exempted under
Executive Order 12866;
     Does not impose an information collection burden under the
provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.);
     Is certified as not having a significant economic impact
on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory
Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.);
     Does not contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or
uniquely affect small governments, as described in the Unfunded
Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4);
     Does not have Federalism implications as specified in
Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999);
     Is not an economically significant regulatory action based
on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR
19885, April 23, 1997);
     Is not a significant regulatory action subject to
Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001);
     Is not subject to requirements of Section 12(d) of the
National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272
note) because application of those requirements would be inconsistent
with the CAA; and
     Does not provide EPA with the discretionary authority to
address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental
effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under
Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).
    In addition, the SIP is not approved to apply on any Indian
reservation land or in any other area where EPA or an Indian tribe has
demonstrated that a tribe has jurisdiction. In those areas of Indian
country, the rule does not have tribal implications and will not impose
substantial direct costs on tribal governments or preempt tribal law as
specified by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000).
List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52
    Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by
reference, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone,
Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Sulfur
oxides.
    Dated: June 13, 2019.
Cathy Stepp,
Regional Administrator, Region 5.
[FR Doc. 2019-13640 Filed 6-26-19; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 6560-50-P