Amendments Related to: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment Programs, and MARPOL Annex VI Implementation

 
CONTENT

Federal Register, Volume 80 Issue 33 (Thursday, February 19, 2015)

Federal Register Volume 80, Number 33 (Thursday, February 19, 2015)

Rules and Regulations

Pages 9077-9124

From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office www.gpo.gov

FR Doc No: 2015-02846

Page 9077

Vol. 80

Thursday,

No. 33

February 19, 2015

Part III

Environmental Protection Agency

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40 CFR Parts 59, 80, 85, et al.

Amendments Related to: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment Programs, and MARPOL Annex VI Implementation; Direct Final Rule

Page 9078

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Parts 59, 80, 85, 86, 600, 1037, 1043, 1051, 1054, 1060, 1065, and 1066

EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9922-31-OAR

RIN 2060-AS36

Amendments Related to: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment Programs, and MARPOL Annex VI Implementation

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.

ACTION: Direct final rule.

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SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is taking direct final action on several amendments involving technical clarifications for different mobile source regulations. First, we are making a variety of corrections to the Tier 3 motor vehicle emission and fuel standards. These changes generally correct or clarify various provisions from the Tier 3 rule without expanding the Tier 3 program or otherwise making substantive changes. Second, we are revising the test procedures and compliance provisions for nonroad spark-ignition engines at or below 19 kW (and for the corresponding nonroad equipment) to conform to current practices. The changes to evaporative emission test procedures also apply to some degree to other types of nonroad equipment powered by volatile liquid fuels. Third, we are addressing an ambiguity regarding permissible design approaches for portable fuel containers meeting evaporative emission standards. Fourth, we are revising the regulations to more carefully align with current requirements that apply to marine vessels with diesel engines as specified under MARPOL Annex VI. Fifth, we are correcting typographical errors in regulatory changes finalized in the Voluntary Quality Assurance Program rulemaking.

This rulemaking action is not expected to result in any significant changes in regulatory burdens or costs.

DATES: This final rule is effective on May 5, 2015, without further notice, unless EPA receives adverse comment by April 6, 2015. If EPA receives adverse comment on any provisions of the rule, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register informing the public that those specific provisions will not take effect. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this regulation is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of May 5, 2015.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-

OAR-2011-0135, by one of the following methods:

www.regulations.gov: Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments.

Email: A-and-R-Docket@epamail.epa.gov.

Fax: (202) 566-9744

Mail: Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 28221T, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460.

Hand Delivery: EPA Docket Center, EPA WJC West Building, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information.

Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-

2011-0135. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through www.regulations.gov or email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through www.regulations.gov your email address will be automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket visit the EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm.

Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, EPA/DC, EPA WJC West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the Air Docket is (202) 566-

1742.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Stout, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Assessment and Standards Division (ASD), Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor MI 48105; Telephone number: (734) 214-4805; stout.alan@epa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Why is EPA using a Direct Final Rule?

EPA is publishing this rule without a prior proposed rule because we view this as a noncontroversial action and anticipate no adverse comment. This is also intended to expedite the regulatory process to allow the modifications to take effect as soon as possible. However, in the ``Proposed Rules'' section of today's Federal Register, we are publishing a separate document that will serve as the proposed rule to adopt these same amendments if adverse comments are received on this direct final rule. We will not institute a second comment period on this action. Any parties interested in commenting must do so at this time. For further information about commenting on this rule, see the ADDRESSES section of this document.

If EPA receives adverse comment on a distinct provision of this rulemaking, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register indicating which provisions we are withdrawing. The provisions that are not withdrawn will become effective on the date set out above, notwithstanding adverse comment on any other provision. We would address all public comments in any subsequent final rule based on the proposed rule.

EPA is publishing this direct final rule to expedite corrections to the regulatory text and clarifications and adjustments that generally reduce the burden and/or confusion related to

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compliance with regulatory requirements. If you comment on this rule, we request that you identify any portions of the action with which you agree and support as written, in addition to any comments regarding suggestions for improvement or provisions with which you disagree. In the case of a comment that is otherwise not clearly adverse, EPA would interpret relevant comments calling for more flexibility or less restrictions as supportive of the direct final action. In this way, EPA will be able to adopt those elements of this action that are supported and most needed without delay, while considering and addressing any constructive or adverse comments received on the proposed rule in the course of developing the final rule.

Does this action apply to me?

Entities potentially affected by this rule include gasoline refiners and importers, ethanol producers, ethanol denaturant producers, butane and pentane producers, gasoline additive manufacturers, transmix processors, terminals and fuel distributors, light-duty vehicle manufacturers, manufacturers of nonroad engines and equipment, manufacturers of marine compression-ignition engines, and owners and operators of ocean-going vessels and other commercial ships, and manufacturers of portable fuel containers.

Potentially regulated categories include:

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Category NAICS \a\ Code Examples of potentially affected entities

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Industry................................ 324110..................... Petroleum refineries (including

importers).

Industry................................ 325110..................... Butane and pentane manufacturers.

Industry................................ 325193..................... Ethyl alcohol manufacturing.

Industry................................ 324110, 211112............. Ethanol denaturant manufacturers.

Industry................................ 211112..................... Natural gas liquids extraction and

fractionation.

Industry................................ 325199..................... Other basic organic chemical

manufacturing.

Industry................................ 486910..................... Natural gas liquids pipelines, refined

petroleum products pipelines.

Industry................................ 424690..................... Chemical and allied products merchant

wholesalers.

Industry................................ 325199..................... Manufacturers of gasoline additives.

Industry................................ 424710..................... Petroleum bulk stations and terminals.

Industry................................ 493190..................... Other warehousing and storage-bulk

petroleum storage.

Industry................................ 336111, 336112............. Light-duty vehicle and light-duty truck

manufacturers.

Industry................................ 335312, 336312, 336322, Alternative fuel converters.

336399, 811198.

Industry................................ 333618, 336120, 336211, On-highway heavy-duty engine & vehicle

336312. (>8,500 lbs GVWR) manufacturers.

Industry................................ 336611..................... Manufacturers of marine vessels.

Industry................................ 336612..................... Manufacturers of marine vessels.

Industry................................ 811310..................... Engine repair and maintenance.

Industry................................ 483........................ Water transportation, freight and

passenger.

Industry................................ 424710, 424720............. Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals;

Petroleum and Petroleum Products

Wholesalers.

Industry................................ 483113..................... Coastal and Great Lakes Freight

Transportation.

Industry................................ 483114..................... Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger

Transportation.

Industry................................ 333618..................... Manufacturers of new engines.

Industry................................ 333112..................... Manufacturers of lawn and garden tractors

(home).

Industry................................ 811112, 811198............. Commercial importers of vehicles and

vehicle components.

Industry................................ 326199, 332431............. Portable fuel container manufacturers.

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\a\ North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).

This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be regulated by this action. This table lists the types of entities that EPA is now aware could potentially be regulated by this action. Other types of entities not listed in the table could also be regulated. To determine whether your activities are regulated by this action, you should carefully examine the applicability criteria in the referenced regulations. If you have any questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular entity, consult the person listed in the preceding FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section.

What should I consider as I prepare my comments for EPA?

  1. Submitting CBI. Do not submit this information to EPA through www.regulations.gov or email. Clearly mark the part or all of the information that you claim to be CBI. For CBI information in a disk or CD ROM that you mail to EPA, mark the outside of the disk or CD ROM as CBI and then identify electronically within the disk or CD ROM the specific information that is claimed as CBI. In addition to one complete version of the comment that includes information claimed as CBI, a copy of the comment that does not contain the information claimed as CBI must be submitted for inclusion in the public docket. Information so marked will not be disclosed except in accordance with procedures set forth in 40 CFR part 2.

  2. Tips for Preparing Your Comments. When submitting comments, remember to:

    Identify the rulemaking by docket number and other identifying information (subject heading, Federal Register date and page number).

    Follow directions--The agency may ask you to respond to specific questions or organize comments by referencing a Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part or section number.

    Explain why you agree or disagree, suggest alternatives, and substitute language for your requested changes.

    Describe any assumptions and provide any technical information and/or data that you used.

    If you estimate potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived at your estimate in sufficient detail to allow for it to be reproduced.

    Provide specific examples to illustrate your concerns, and suggest alternatives.

    Explain your views as clearly as possible, avoiding the use of profanity or personal threats.

    Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period deadline identified.

    Page 9080

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    2. Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission Standards

    3. 40 CFR part 80 Fuel Standards

    4. Small SI Test Fuel and Bonding Provisions

    5. Evaporative Test Procedures for Nonroad Equipment

    6. Portable Fuel Containers

    7. MARPOL Annex VI Implementation

    8. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

    9. Statutory Provisions and Legal Authority

    10. Introduction

      In this action we are adopting several amendments that will make technical clarifications to different mobile source regulations. This section provides an overview of the organization of this preamble. Section II describes amendments to the Tier 3 motor vehicle emission standards. Section III describes amendments to the 40 CFR part 80 fuel standards: including the Tier 3 gasoline sulfur standards, other part 80 fuels regulations that were amended in the Tier 3 final rule, and amendments made in the Quality Assurance Program rulemaking. Section IV describes the changes to the testing and compliance provisions for nonroad spark-ignition engines, and Section V describes how we are changing the evaporative test procedures for nonroad equipment. Section VI describes amendments to the requirements that apply for portable fuel containers. Section VII summarizes the amendments related to our implementation of requirements for marine diesel engines and vessels under MARPOL Annex VI.

    11. Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission Standards

      On April 28, 2014, we published a final rule adopting new emission standards and fuel requirements for motor vehicles and for motor vehicle fuels (79 FR 23414). The final rule included Tier 3 emission standards to reduce exhaust and evaporative emissions from light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles up to 14,000 pounds GVWR. In addition, the final rule specified corresponding changes to in-use fuel requirements.

      The Tier 3 motor vehicle program included extensive changes to emission standards and the regulatory requirements related to certification. This included several provisions to harmonize requirements with a similar set of standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board (California ARB). It also included a wide range of alternative measures intended to facilitate each manufacturer's efforts to make an orderly transition to meeting the Tier 3 standards nationwide. The resulting Tier 3 regulations accordingly included several variations, alternatives, and ancillary provisions. We have learned since concluding the Tier 3 rulemaking that there are several instances where the regulatory text implementing the Tier 3 program requires correction or clarification to achieve the intended result. None of the amendments are intended to expand the Tier 3 program or otherwise make substantive changes. We are therefore making the following amendments to the Tier 3 vehicle program regulations:

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      Regulatory citation Description

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      Sec. 85.2108.............................. Remove section to reflect a recent change to Clean Air Act section

      207.

      Sec. 86.101, Sec. 1066.301, and Sec. Adjust the procedures for determining road-load parameters to more

      1066.305. carefully align with current practice, including the option for

      manufacturers to use alternate methodologies that are consistent

      with the reference procedure, subject to good engineering

      judgment and EPA confirmatory testing. We are also restoring

      provisions describing how to develop road-load parameters for

      cold testing; the provisions from Sec. 86.229 were

      inadvertently replaced with a default instruction to use the same

      values for both FTP testing and cold testing. We are also

      changing terminology from ``coastdown'' to ``road-load

      determination'' for consistency.

      Sec. Sec. 86.095-35 and 1037.135......... Revise the labeling requirement for incomplete heavy-duty vehicles

      to require designation of maximum fuel tank capacity only in

      cases where the certifying manufacturer relies on a downstream

      manufacturer to design and install the vehicle's fuel tanks. If

      the certifying manufacturer designs or installs the fuel tank,

      there is no need for the emission control information label to

      identify the appropriate fuel tank capacity.

      Sec. Sec. 86.101 and 86.1844-01.......... Clarify that reporting drive-cycle metrics to confirm driver

      accuracy continue to be optional until vehicles are subject to

      Tier 3 emission standards, and revise terminology for consistency

      with 40 CFR 1066.425.

      Sec. 86.101............................... Clarify that manufacturers may continue to certify in 2022 and

      later model years based on carryover of emission data generated

      using the procedures from 40 CFR part 86, subpart B, even though

      we require new testing in that time frame to use the procedures

      in 40 CFR part 1066.

      Sec. 86.113............................... Revise the format of the volatility specification to rely

      primarily on psi units and secondarily on kPa units. The kPa

      figures for non-evaporative testing also need to be corrected to

      align with the specified psi units. These changes align with the

      test fuel specifications that were in place before the Tier 3

      rule. We are also revising the table format for octane

      specifications to clarify that the both ASTM D2699 and ASTM D2700

      apply for determining octane values and octane sensitivity

      values.

      Sec. 86.201............................... Clarify how the migration to testing under 40 CFR part 1066 works

      for cold temperature testing. This is analogous to the migration

      provisions for general testing in Sec. 86.101.

      Sec. 86.213............................... Revise the specified tolerance for olefin concentration in the

      test fuel from 0.5 percent to 5.0

      percent. This reverses an inadvertent change made in the Tier 3

      final rule. We are also revising the table format for octane

      specifications to clarify that both ASTM D2699 and ASTM D2700

      apply for determining octane values and octane sensitivity

      values.

      Sec. 86.513............................... Correct a typographical error for the 90% point in the

      distillation curve for gasoline test fuel. This was erroneously

      published as part of the Tier 3 rule with an extra ``1'' before

      the specified temperature of 148.9 degC. This change restores

      the temperature specification to what applied before we adopted

      the Tier 3 rule.

      Sec. 86.513-2004.......................... Remove obsolete section. Fuel specifications for motorcycles are

      now addressed in Sec. 86.513 (with no model year designation),

      so the 2004 section is removed to avoid confusion.

      Sec. 86.1801-12........................... Clarify how the requirements of subpart S relate to the engine and

      vehicle provisions in 40 CFR part 1036 and part 1037.

      Sec. 86.1803-01........................... Revise the definition of ``averaging set'' to apply to all

      vehicles, not only heavy-duty vehicles.

      Sec. Sec. 86.1805-17 and 86.1811-17...... Address provisions for LDV above 6,000 pounds GVWR. A new

      paragraph describes how these vehicles are subject to the same

      transitional provisions that apply for LDV at or below 6,000

      pounds GVWR. We are also clarifying useful life provisions for

      LDV above 6,000 pounds GVWR. We described the useful life

      provisions based on a simple cutpoint of 6,000 pounds GVWR, which

      doesn't address a small number of LDV models that have higher

      GVWR values. Instead of changing the useful life values adopted

      for cold temperature emission standards, we are using the terms

      LDV and LLDT to characterize the vehicles that are subject to a

      useful life of 10 years or 120,000 miles. We are also clarifying

      that MDPVs are the only HDVs subject to standards under Sec.

      86.1818.

      Page 9081

      Sec. 86.1806-17........................... Correct the citation to California ARB's OBD regulations to refer

      to the entire range of relevant OBD standards.

      Sec. 86.1810-01........................... Clarify that the provisions for determining NMOG from measured

      NMHC values also apply for Tier 2 vehicles, as specified in Sec.

      1066.635, except that manufacturers may continue to use a fixed

      adjustment factor of 1.04.

      Sec. 86.1810-17........................... Clarify that the provisions for testing flexible fuel vehicles on

      more than just gasoline or diesel fuel do not apply for

      greenhouse gas standards.

      Sec. 86.1811-17(b)(8)..................... Clarify how to calculate and use credits for manufacturers that

      certify some vehicles to a useful life of 120,000 miles and other

      vehicles to a useful life of 150,000 miles. The main point of

      clarification is that vehicles certified to the shorter useful

      life on an interim basis may exchange emission credits with

      vehicles certified to either useful life, but the fleet-average

      standard for a given set of vehicles must correspond to the

      averaging set. We are also listing the emission standards that

      correspond to a 120,000 mile useful life rather than describing

      how to calculate those standards.

      Sec. 86.1811-17(b)(8)..................... Add a provision that Interim Tier 3 vehicles must continue to meet

      the 4000-mile SFTP standards for NMHC+NOX and CO from Tier 2.

      This requirement was included in the preamble text for the

      proposed rule and the final rule, but was inadvertently omitted

      from the regulatory text.

      Sec. 86.1811-17(b)(10).................... Clarify provisions related to early credits: (1) Early credits may

      be used interchangeably (without adjustment) for vehicles

      certified to a useful life of either 120,000 miles or 150,000

      miles. (2) Accumulated early credits should be used for

      demonstrating compliance with model year 2017 standards before

      doing the calculations to address proportionality relative to

      California emission credits. (3) Negative credits are subtracted

      from credit totals during the three-year period for calculating

      credit caps (rather than ignoring them). (4) The calculation for

      applying the cap/threshold relative to California credits must be

      corrected to use the proper baseline quantity.

      Sec. 86.1811-17(b)(11).................... Clarify provisions related to early certification to Tier 3

      standards: (1) Bin 70 and cleaner vehicles are considered Tier 3

      vehicles on a voluntary basis and are therefore subject to the

      150,000 mile useful life. (2) The transitional aspects of the

      Tier 3 program apply equally to vehicles certified early to the

      Tier 3 standards.

      Sec. 86.1811-17(g)........................ Revise the cold temperature testing specifications to clarify that

      CO and NMHC standards apply equally for certification and in-use

      testing, for low and high altitude, and for testing gasoline-only

      configurations of flexible-fuel vehicles.

      Sec. 86.1813-17........................... Clarify that no separate fleet-average calculation is required for

      demonstrating compliance with high-altitude evaporative emission

      standards. These standards are determined as bin values relative

      to the standard that applies for testing at low-altitude

      conditions.

      Sec. 86.1829-15........................... Adjust the refueling test waiver to state that it applies only for

      incomplete heavy-duty vehicles above 10,000 pounds GVWR, and for

      complete heavy-duty vehicles above 10,000 pounds GVWR with fuel

      tanks greater than 35 gallons, consistent with the preamble

      discussion in the final rule. These vehicles are the only ones

      that are newly subject to refueling emission standards. All

      smaller vehicles have already been subject to testing and

      certification requirements.

      Sec. 86.1829-15........................... Add a paragraph to preserve the provisions related to measurement

      of N2O emissions as originally adopted at Sec. 86.1829-

      01(b)(2)(iii)(G).

      Sec. 86.1829-15........................... Revise terminology to refer to ``durability groups'' rather than

      ``durability data groups'' for PM testing.

      Sec. 86.1844-01........................... Specify that a manufacturer's application for certification must

      include a description of leak families in addition to evaporative/

      refueling families. Since leak families are defined broadly, many

      manufacturers may have only a single leak family even if they

      have multiple evaporative/refueling families.

      Sec. 86.1845-01........................... Clarify that the PM measurement instructions are limited to

      vehicles subject to Tier 3 PM standards, as discussed in the

      final rule.

      Sec. 86.1846-01........................... Adjust the exclusion of high-mileage vehicles to the terminology

      changes to Sec. 86.1845-05. This change aligns with the current

      practice of not including the results from testing the designated

      high-mileage vehicle at low altitude for making an IUVP

      determination for the test group.

      Sec. 86.1861-17........................... Clarify that the separate averaging set corresponding to 120,000

      mile useful life applies only for NMOG+NOX emission standards.

      Sec. Sec. 600.116-12 and 1066.501........ Clarify that certain portions of SAE J1711 apply separately for

      charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operation for hybrid-

      electric vehicles.

      Sec. 600.117.............................. Adjust the description to more clearly apply the interim allowance

      for using Tier 2 fuel to determine whether vehicles pass the

      ``litmus test'' for using derived 5-cycle testing for fuel

      economy, as described further below.

      Sec. 600.117.............................. Revise the description for test fuels to clarify that cold testing

      may be done with the higher-volatility fuel specified in Sec.

      86.213, and that the requirement for using a common test fuel

      related to 5-cycle testing refers to the ethanol content of the

      fuel, not the whole range of test fuel specifications.

      Sec. 1037.103............................. Refer to Sec. 86.1805 for useful life values as they apply for

      evaporative emission standards, rather than referring more

      broadly to useful life values in 40 CFR part 86 for ``criteria

      pollutants''.

      Sec. 1037.104............................. Refer to the useful life values specified in Sec. 86.1805 for

      model year 2014 vehicles for the HD GHG standards. This sets the

      useful life values for the HD GHG standards to a fixed value,

      rather than specifying a cross reference to a section of the

      regulations that describes changing useful life values.

      Sec. Sec. 1065.10 and 1066.10............ Allow for a one-year lead time for upgrading to test procedure

      changes in 40 CFR part 86 where those changes would otherwise be

      required immediately with the effective date of the final rule.

      This is consistent with existing provisions for changes to 40 CFR

      part 1065 and part 1066. Note that this does not delay

      implementation of procedures corresponding to new emission

      standards.

      Sec. 1065.610............................. Correct a sample calculation.

      Sec. 1065.710............................. Correct the units for specifying hydrocarbon composition. These

      units were inadvertently changed in the Tier 3 rule from

      fractional to percent values. We are specifying these values in

      volume % to align with the associated ASTM procedure.

      Sec. 1065.710............................. Revise the format of the volatility specification to include

      reference values in psi units.

      Sec. 1066.125............................. Correct the description of calculating 1 Hz mean values.

      Sec. 1066.125............................. Add a parenthetical reference to torque in pound-foot units

      corresponding to the primary value in Newtons.

      Sec. 1066.420............................. Clarify that it is permissible to push the test vehicle onto the

      dynamometer to prepare for a hot-start or hot-stabilized test, as

      opposed to driving the vehicle onto the dynamometer.

      Sec. 1066.605............................. Revise the sequence of calculations to determine a NOX result. The

      proper sequence is to first correct for background concentration,

      then to correct for intake air humidity.

      Page 9082

      Sec. 1066.615............................. Correct the equations to properly apply the NOX humidity

      correction factor to account for humidity in the background

      measurement.

      Sec. 1066.635............................. Clarify that the appropriate NMOG calculation for plug-in hybrid

      electric vehicles is based on operation over one full UDDS.

      Sec. 1066.701............................. Correct a temperature that was inadvertently identified as 20

      degC instead of 20 degF.

      Sec. 1066.710............................. Clarify the instructions for heat settings during cold testing to

      more carefully differentiate between automatic systems that

      operate either in manual mode or in automatic mode. Automatic

      systems operating in manual mode should be set to a temperature

      of 72 degF ``or higher'' to align with current practice.

      Sec. 1066.801............................. Correct an error in the testing flowchart so that the flowchart

      matches the procedure described in the regulations.

      Sec. 1066.815............................. Reorganize the instructions for testing with and without bag 4 to

      improve the clarity of the test sequence.

      Sec. 1066.831............................. Revise the description for testing heavy-duty vehicles at adjusted

      loaded vehicle weight to exclude MDPVs, which are tested like

      light-duty trucks.

      Sec. 1066.835............................. Add a provision allowing for keeping the vehicle-cooling fan

      running while the vehicle is stopped if that is necessary for

      keeping ambient conditions within specified parameters.

      Sec. 1066.845............................. Adjust the description of air conditioning settings during the

      AC17 test to describe how to account for systems with separate

      rear controls, and for systems that change default settings at

      key-off.

      Sec. 1066.1005............................ Move the prefix ``n'' to be in the proper order.

      Various..................................... Change from ``LA-92'' to ``Hot-LA-92'' to allow us to specify that

      the referenced test procedure is only the first 1435 seconds of

      what is known as the LA-92 driving schedule. The full cycle is

      1735 seconds. This change is necessary to accomplish the intended

      alignment with the California ARB standards.

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      We are also making various corrections for typographical errors and regulatory cross references. Note that one of these corrections is in the regulations for recreational vehicles at 40 CFR 1051.501 to maintain a proper cross reference to the driving schedules in Appendix I of 40 CFR part 86. We are also correcting a typographical error from Sec. 86.529-98 that was published several years ago. The specified range of loaded vehicle masses corresponding to certain road-load force coefficients and inertia weights has an entry that should be listed as applying from 656 to 665 kg; the published entry mistakenly identifies the range as 565 to 665 kg.

      One additional issue relates to test fuel for fuel economy testing. In the Tier 3 final rule, EPA changed the certification test fuel for the Tier 3 exhaust emission standards from a 9 psi RVP fuel with no ethanol (E0) (commonly referred to as Tier 2 fuel) to a 9 psi RVP fuel with 10 percent ethanol (E10). As an interim provision, EPA permitted vehicles certifying at levels above Bin 70 to use E0 fuel for Tier 3 certification through model year 2019. The rule also permits early certification to Tier 3 requirements using 7 psi RVP E10 test fuel, commonly referred to as LEV III fuel since the California LEV III program phase-in begins with model year 2015. The rule also provides manufacturers the option to use EPA 9RVP E0 fuel or 9RVP E10 fuel for certification for cold temperature testing since California does not specify a test fuel for that testing.

      Under the fuel economy regulations, manufacturers use the results of their exhaust emission tests as the basis for calculating litmus test evaluations (see 40 CFR 600.115-11). However, in the Tier 3 rule EPA did not change the fuel economy test fuel specifications from E0 to E10 as was done for Tier 3 exhaust emissions. The preamble to the final rule recognized that the difference in the emission and fuel economy test fuels has the potential to require extra emission testing for the fuel economy evaluations. To minimize this burden, EPA included several provisions in the regulations to minimize this potential burden (see 40 CFR 600.117) and indicated a commitment to make any appropriate adjustments to the fuel economy regulations to accommodate the change to an E10 test fuel when the needed emission data become available.

      As is discussed in the final rule (79 FR 23531-23533, April 28, 2014), central to the litmus test evaluation is the requirement that data be available for all five emission test cycles and that the data be generated using the same test fuel on each cycle. Some confusion has arisen as to what cold FTP test fuel should be used in the litmus evaluations for early Tier 3 certifications using LEV III test fuel and for Tier 3 certification above Bin 70 before model year 2020. This occurs because California ARB does not specify a cold FTP test fuel and, as a transitional measure, EPA permits certification to Tier 3 Bin 125 and Bin 160 using Tier 2 fuel. This amendment clarifies that the fuel economy test fuel requirements govern for the litmus test evaluations. As indicated in the preamble to the final rule at 79 FR 23533, manufacturers may use LEV III fuel (California Phase 3) in lieu of Tier 3 fuel, but any cold FTP testing must be done using the Tier 3 cold FTP fuel. Thus, for purposes of the litmus test cold temperature testing, manufacturers must use the same test fuel (E10) as used for the other four cycles. For early Tier 3 certifications using LEV III test fuel, the cold FTP test data must be generated using Tier 3 cold FTP test fuel and in the case of the higher bins in the Tier 3 program as discussed above, the cold FTP must be based on the same fuel as used for the other four test cycles. The flexibility afforded for exhaust emission certification does not carry over to the litmus test evaluations.

    12. 40 CFR Part 80 Fuel Standards

      After promulgation of the Tier 3 final rulemaking (79 FR 23414, April 28, 2014), we discovered some typographical errors and other areas in the part 80 regulations that we believe would benefit from some additional clarity. The following sections discuss the amendments to remedy these concerns.

  3. Performance-Based Measurement Systems (PBMS)

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Section Description

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    80.8(e)(1)(iii).............. Amended to update IBR to most recent ASTM

    standard practice D5842-14 (Standard

    Practice for Sampling and Handling for

    Fuels for Volatility Measurement,

    approved January 15, 2014).

    80.46(d)..................... Amended to clarify that distillation

    precision criterion is based on the

    reproducibility of Table 10 Groups 2, 3

    and 4 (Automated Method) contained in

    ASTM D86-07--clarifying note added to

    state that precision estimates in ASTM

    D86-12 do not apply.

    Page 9083

    80.46(b)(1), (c)(2), (d), Amended to clarify beginning January 1,

    (e), (f)(1), and (g)(1). 2016 a test method approved under 40 CFR

    80.47 ``must'' be used, rather than

    ``may'' be used, by the regulated

    community for demonstrating compliance

    measurements to EPA fuels standards.

    80.47(a)(7).................. Amended to correct typographical error

    (``referee'' to ``reference'').

    80.47(b)(1), (c)(1), (d)(1), Amended to correct typographical error

    (e)(1), (f)(1), (g)(1), (``emissions'' to ``omissions''); and to

    (h)(1), (i)(1), (j)(1). add the statement ``tests may be

    arranged into no fewer than five batches

    of four or fewer tests each, with only

    one such batch allowed per day over the

    minimum of 20 days''.

    80.47(c)(1), (c)(2)(i), Amended to correct the examples listed

    (c)(2)(ii). for precision and accuracy demonstration

    for sulfur in butane to be consistent

    with the sulfur in gasoline 10 ppm

    average.

    80.47(h)(1).................. Amended to: correct typographical errors;

    clarify that distillation precision

    criterion is based on the

    reproducibility of Table 10 Groups 2, 3

    and 4 (Automated Method) contained in

    ASTM D86-07 (clarifying note added

    stating that precision estimates in D86-

    12 do not apply); and revise IBR of D86

    to the 2007 version.

    80.47(i)(1).................. Revised benzene precision criteria to

    0.15 times R, rather than 0.3 times R to

    be consistent with preamble discussion.

    80.47(l)..................... Amended to revise section heading and add

    paragraphs (l)(1)(ii) and (l)(2)(ii) to

    allow for Non-Voluntary Consensus

    Standard Based (non-VCSB) absolute fuel

    parameter of sulfur in gasoline and

    butane. Also clarifying that either a

    ``test facility or VCSB'' must meet the

    requirements of Sec. 80.47(l).

    80.47(m)(6).................. Amended to correct reference for the use

    of the term ``cross-method

    reproducibility'' in ASTM D6708 from

    ``as required'' to ``as recommended''

    and replaced the term ``cross-method

    reproducibility'' with ``between methods

    reproducibility'' to be consistent with

    D6708-13.

    80.47(n)(2)(i), (o)(2)(i), Amended to correct references to D6299-13

    (p)(3)(i). with regards to use of a quality control

    material (paragraph 3.2.3 changed to

    3.2.8), I Chart (section 7 changed to

    section 8) and MR charts (section A1.5.2

    changed to A1.5.4).

    80.47(n)(2)(ii), (o)(2)(ii), Amended to correct references to D6299-13

    (p)(3)(ii). with regards to use of an I Chart

    (changed section 7 to section 8.7).

    80.47(n)(2)(iv), (o)(2)(iv), Amended to move the phrase ``The expanded

    (p)(2)(iv); and (n)(1)(ii), uncertainty of the accepted reference

    (o)(1)(ii), (p)(1)(ii). value of consensus named fuels shall

    have the following accuracy

    qualification criterion: Accuracy

    qualification criterion = square root

    (0.75R)supcaret2+(0.75R)supcaret2/

    L, where L = the number of single

    results obtained from different labs

    used to calculate the consensus ARV.''

    from paragraphs (n)(2)(iv), (o)(2)(iv),

    (p)(2)(iv) to paragraphs (n)(1)(ii),

    (o)(1)(ii), (p)(1)(ii), respectively.

    80.47(o)(1).................. Amended to clarify value of ARV when not

    provided in an Inter Laboratory

    Crosscheck Program, by adding the

    following: ``Facilities using a VCSB

    alternative method defined test method

    must use the Accepted Reference Value of

    the check standard as determined in a

    VCSB Inter Laboratory Crosscheck Program

    (ILCP) or a commercially available ILCP

    following the guidelines of ASTM D6299.

    If the Accepted Reference Value is not

    provided in the ILCP, accuracy must be

    assessed based upon the respective EPA

    designated test method using appropriate

    production samples.''

    80.47(o)(1).................. Amended to clarify that ILCPs are

    acceptable, by adding the following:

    ``(Examples of ILCP: ASTM Reformulated

    Gasoline ILCP or ASTM motor gasoline

    ILCP)''.

    80.47(p)(1).................. Amended to clarify value of ARV when not

    provided in ILCP, by adding the

    following: ``Facilities using a Non-VCSB

    alternative method defined test method

    must use the Accepted Reference Value of

    the check standard as determined in

    either a VCSB Inter Laboratory

    Crosscheck Program (ILCP) or a

    commercially available ILCP following

    the guidelines of ASTM D6299. If the

    Accepted Reference Value is not provided

    in the ILCP, accuracy must be assessed

    based upon the respective EPA designated

    test method using appropriate production

    samples.''

    80.47(p)(1).................. Amended to address concern that

    reproducibility is not established with

    Non-VCSB test methods, by adding the

    following: ``The facility must construct

    ``MR'' and ``I'' charts with control

    lines as described in section 8.4 and

    appropriate Annex sections of this

    standard practice. In circumstances

    where the absolute difference between

    the mean of multiple back-to-back tests

    of the standard reference material and

    the accepted reference value of the

    standard reference material is greater

    than 0.75 times the published

    reproducibility of the fuel parameter's

    respective designated test method must

    be investigated by the facility.''

    80.47(r)(1)(i)............... Amended to revise IBR of ASTM D86 to the

    2007 version.

    80.330(b)(1)(i), (b)(1)(ii), Amended to update IBR to most recent ASTM

    (b)(2). standard practice D5842-14 (Standard

    Practice for Sampling and Handling for

    Fuels for Volatility Measurement,

    approved January 15, 2014), and for

    consistency with IBR language throughout

    subpart O.

    80.584(a)(1) through (a)(3).. Amended to correct inconsistencies with

    PBMS in Sec. 80.47 regarding

    requirements for PBMS for sulfur in

    diesel fuel and ECA Marine Fuel at Sec.

    80.584 with regards to frequency of

    testing for the precision demonstration

    and VCSB self-qualification starting

    January 1, 2016.

    80.584(a)(1) through (a)(3).. Amended to insert phrase ``(tests may be

    arranged into no fewer than five batches

    of four or fewer tests each, with only

    one such batch allowed per day over the

    minimum of 20 days)'' in applicable

    areas for diesel and ECA marine fuel to

    be consistent with frequency of testing

    for precision demonstration at Sec.

    80.47.

    80.585(a).................... Amended to revise diesel and ECA marine

    fuel sulfur qualification regulations to

    be consistent with PBMS (i.e., starting

    January 1, 2016), VCSB test methods self-

    qualify and need not be reported to the

    Agency for approval.

    80.585(a), (e)(1), (e)(4), Amended to correct inconsistencies with

    (f). PBMS in Sec. 80.47 regarding

    requirements for PBMS for sulfur in

    diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel at Sec.

    80.584 with regards to frequency of

    testing for the precision demonstration

    and VCSB self-qualification starting

    January 1, 2016; and to add a new

    paragraph (f) for IBR.

    80.585(e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(4), Amended to update IBR and reference for

    (f). use on ASTM D6299-13 in applicable

    diesel and ECA marine fuel sulfur

    regulations to be consistent with

    reference of use of ASTM D6299-13 in

    PBMS regulations at Sec. 80.47, and to

    make minor formatting changes for IBR

    consistency throughout part 80.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Page 9084

  4. Quality Assurance Program Amendments

    This action also makes minor technical amendments to regulatory changes finalized in the Voluntary Quality Assurance Program Rulemaking (``QAP Rule'', 79 FR 42078, July 18, 2014). We are changing Sec. 80.1471(d)(1) to reflect a change that industry widely requested and the public supported. In the final rulemaking we agreed to extend the notification period by an auditor for potentially invalid RINs from ``within the next business day'' to ``within five business days.'' We inadvertently neglected to change this reference in Sec. 80.1471(d)(1) to the new ``within five business days'' language.

    In the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the QAP Rule, we proposed a new section at Sec. 80.1433 that would have changed the way parties that redesignated renewable fuels for non-qualifying uses would have to retire RINs, and we proposed new product transfer document (PTD) language at Sec. 80.1453(a)(12) to help convey the requirement to separate and/or retire RINs for parties that wished to redesignate renewable fuel for a non-qualifying use. After careful consideration of the public comments received, we chose not to finalize the proposed Sec. 80.1433 requirements. This action is removing the extraneous reference to Sec. 80.1433 in Sec. 80.1453.

    Additionally, we are amending the PTD requirements at Sec. 80.1453(a) to make the scope of these requirements consistent with similar requirements in other fuels programs. When we altered the scope of the PTD requirements at Sec. 80.1453 to include both neat and blended renewable fuels, we did not intend to expand the scope of these PTD requirements to convey the information at Sec. 80.1453 to the consumer of such fuels, in most cases. In the preamble to the final QAP Rule, we noted that these requirements were meant to apply to regulated parties (79 FR 42105, July 18, 2014).

    Historically, EPA has required applicable information on PTDs accompanying fuels to be conveyed through to retail stations and wholesale purchaser-consumers. The EPA has, in most cases, included language that exempts parties that are transferring title or custody of fuel to the ultimate consumer (e.g., the PTD requirements for detergents at Sec. 80.158 and for E15 at Sec. 80.1503) or dispensing the fuel from a retail station or wholesale purchaser-consumer's tank to a motor vehicle or nonroad engine (e.g., the PTD requirements for diesel and gasoline sulfur at Sec. Sec. 80.590 and 80.1651, respectively). Requiring PTD language to convey information all the way down to consumers fueling at a retail station or homes receiving heating oil has little benefit to the effectiveness of EPA's fuels programs and could be quite costly for retail stations and home heating oil distributors. Therefore, we are clarifying the scope of Sec. 80.1453 by adding an exemption to the PTD requirements for renewable fuels dispensed into motor vehicles and nonroad vehicles, engines, and equipment (to include jet engines and home heating units).

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Section Description

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    80.1426(c)(7)................ Amended to correct typographical error

    (``Sec. 80.1451(b)(1)(ii)(T)(3)'' to

    ``Sec. 80.1451(b)(1)(ii)(T)(2)'').

    80.1453(a) introductory text. Amended for clarity in scope of

    requirements.

    80.1453(a)(12) introductory Amended to remove extraneous reference to

    text. 80.1433.

    80.1471(d)................... Amended to add to ``within five business

    days'', consistent with the intent

    stated in the QAP rule preamble.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

  5. Tier 3 Rulemaking Provisions Minor Technical Amendments

    As mentioned above, this rule corrects minor typographical errors that were discovered following the promulgation of the Tier 3 final rule (both within 40 CFR part 80, subpart O, as well as additional 40 CFR part 80 provisions that were finalized as part of our regulatory streamlining efforts in the Tier 3 rulemaking). The following table contains a list of these amendments and a description of the change:

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Section Description

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    80.2(cccc)................... Removed new definition of natural gas, as

    this definition already exists at Sec.

    80.2(tt).

    80.75(a)(2)(xi)(G)........... Amended to correct reference from ``Sec.

    80.82(c) or (d)'' to ``Sec.

    80.86(a)(3) or (a)(4)''.

    80.82(e)(1).................. Amended to clarify that the provisions of

    an EPA-approved State Implementation

    Plan (SIP) apply to butane blenders.

    80.85(a)..................... Amended introductory text to correct

    typographical errors (``refinery'' to

    ``refiner'').

    80.85(i)..................... Amended to correct typographical errors

    (``they'' to ``it'', ``comply'' to

    complies'').

    80.86(b)(2)(iv) and Amended to correct typographical errors

    (b)(3)(iii). (``complaint'' to ``compliant'').

    80.86(c)..................... Amended to clarify that the PTD for

    pentane used by pentane blenders must

    contain the pentane producer or importer

    company name and facility registration

    number issued by EPA and the name and

    address of the transferor and transferee

    consistent with other part 80 PTD

    requirements.

    80.315(b)(1)(iii), The Tier 3 rulemaking changed the due

    80.1295(b)(1)(ii). date for annual reports and credits from

    the end of February to March 31 for all

    40 CFR part 80 fuels programs; these

    paragraphs are being amended because the

    February date was inadvertently left in

    Sec. Sec. 80.315(b)(1)(iii) and

    80.1295(b)(1)(ii).

    80.330(c)(1), (d)(2)......... Amended to correct year (``December 31,

    20'' to ``December 31, 2015'').

    80.597(d)(3)................. Amended to correct reference from

    paragraph (d) to paragraph (d)(3).

    80.1270(b)(2)................ Amended to clarify that butane blenders

    using the provisions of Sec. 80.82 and

    pentane blenders using the provisions of

    Sec. 80.85 may not generate benzene

    credits.

    80.1609(a)................... Amended to correct typographical error

    and to correct a regulatory cite.

    80.1611(a)(1),............... Amended to improve the clarity in cases

    where producers of certified ethanol

    denaturants produce product to a lower

    sulfur maximum than the required 300 ppm

    maximum.

    80.1611(c) introductory text, Amended for improved clarity and to

    (c)(1), and (c)(2). correct typographical errors.

    80.1611(d)................... Amended to correct typographical error

    (``denaturant'' instead of

    ``oxygenate'').

    80.1613(a)................... Amended to correct typographical error

    (``less than 1.0'' replaces ``1.0 or

    less'').

    80.1613(b)(3)................ Added to clarify that it is a violation

    to exceed an additive manufacturer's

    recommended treatment level when doing

    so would contribute more than 3 ppm to

    the sulfur content of the resulting

    finished gasoline.

    Page 9085

    80.1615(d)(1), (d)(2)........ Revised for clarity by moving the phrase

    ``From January 1, 2017 through December

    31, 2019'' to the beginning of each

    paragraph.

    80.1616(a)(4)................ Amended to add a ``Reserved'' paragraph

    (a)(4) to fix numbering error.

    80.1616(b)(2)................ Amended language to clarify that credits

    expire on December 31 and are reported

    the following March 31.

    80.1620(d)................... Revised to correct year to 2012.

    80.1620(e)(1), (e)(2), (f)(1) Revised to correct dates to 2013.

    80.1621(c), (d).............. Reserved paragraph (c); added paragraph

    (d), which was inadvertently deleted

    from the regulations, but is referred to

    in the preamble and in Sec.

    80.1622(e).

    80.1640(a)(2)................ Amended to correct reference from

    paragraph (a)(5) to paragraph (a)(1).

    80.1642(c)(3)................ Amended paragraph to correct

    typographical errors.

    80.1650...................... Amended to remove phrase ``whichever is

    earlier'' from paragraphs specifying the

    dates by which reports must be

    submitted, as this would contradict the

    ability of parties to register after the

    initial date that parties involved in a

    given activity must be registered.

    80.1652(c)................... Amended to correct word error

    (``producer'' instead of ``refiner'').

    80.1667(c)(1)................ Removed paragraph (c)(1) to match the

    intentions of Sec. 80.1615(a) that

    refiners--including gasoline blenders

    (excluding those specified in Sec.

    80.1615(a)(3))--may generate Tier 3

    credits beginning in 2014.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    1. Small SI Test Fuel and Bonding Provisions

      On June 17, 2013, EPA modified the test procedures for measuring exhaust emissions from land-based nonroad small spark-ignition engines (small SI engines) to allow for exhaust emission certification testing with a test fuel that has 10 percent ethanol as specified by California ARB (78 FR 36370). We adopted that provision on an interim basis, through model year 2019, with the expectation that we would further evaluate the appropriate test fuel for onroad and nonroad applications. The Tier 3 motor vehicle emission standards include a new certification test fuel specification that is much like California ARB's Phase 3 test fuel in that it includes 10 percent ethanol (E10).

      Small SI manufacturers have requested that we address the test fuel questions in a way that does not leave them uncertain about certification test fuel options starting in model year 2020. While the effort to adopt the new EPA nonroad test fuel specification lies ahead, we agree with the manufacturers that the new ethanol-based test fuel associated with the Tier 3 motor vehicle emission standards allows us to take the step of removing the expiration of the provision allowing for the use of the similar California ARB Phase 3 test fuel for small SI engines. In the future, we expect to go through a rulemaking to incorporate EPA's Tier 3 test fuel into the emission programs for small spark-ignition engines, including an assessment of how the changing test fuel relates to the stringency of the emission standards.

      When we adopted Phase 3 exhaust emission standards for Small SI engines in 2008, we included a new set of requirements for manufacturers to post a bond as a means of ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements (73 FR 59034, October 8, 2008). Manufacturers have been complying with the bond requirements since 2010. The bond provisions are generally working as expected, but we have found several items that should be adjusted or clarified to help with ongoing implementation, as follows:

      Clarify that bonds are intended to cover any improperly funded compliance obligations relative only to engines that must comply with 40 CFR part 1054. The bond provisions are not intended to extend to engines that a manufacturer certifies under other EPA programs.

      Specify that small-volume engine manufacturers and small-

      volume equipment manufacturers (collectively small-volume manufacturers, as defined in 40 CFR 1054.801) are subject to an alternate minimum bond value of $25,000, rather than the $500,000 minimum that applies for other manufacturers. This arrangement has been the working policy under the broader allowance specified in Sec. 1054.635(d). Codifying these terms allows us to streamline the process and remove uncertainty for small-volume manufacturers.

      Adopt a cap on the bond value that corresponds to the applicable bond-waiver threshold. Since U.S.-based assets are roughly analogous to bond values as a measure of our ability to compel compliance (or remedy deficiencies) for the different kinds of companies, this approach provides a measure of parity or fairness between those that must post bond and those that qualify for a bond waiver based on their assets in the United States. This is consistent with the approach we took on an interim basis to specify a maximum bond value of $10 million. The new provision replaces the $10 million cap in Sec. 1054.145(o).

      Clarify how bond values may change within a given year, and in future years: (1) Bond values may be adjusted for a given year any time before the first importation or sale for that year; (2) once a bond value is fixed for a given year, that value may not be decreased during the year, even if sales volumes are less than anticipated; and (3) bond values may be reset with each new year, but these values must reflect actual sales volumes for the preceding three years. This arrangement allows a manufacturer to take a deliberate approach to resetting bond values if sales volumes change substantially over time.

      Change the protocol for adjusting thresholds and bond values for inflation. Small, annual changes create confusion and an implementation burden, with very small incremental benefit. To streamline that process and still account for the cumulative effects of inflation, we are specifying that we will adjust the thresholds and bond values in 2020, and every ten years after that, using a less precise rounding protocol. These changes will not require rulemaking to take effect, but we will likely modify the regulation to reflect these periodic adjustments.

    2. Evaporative Test Procedures for Nonroad Equipment

      We specify evaporative emission standards, test procedures, and certification requirements in 40 CFR part 1060. This includes measurement procedures for fuel permeation through fuel lines and fuel tanks, and for diurnal emissions from fuel tanks. We are making the following changes to these regulations:

      Clarify that boat builders and other equipment manufacturers that install uncertified components are required to certify those fuel-system components as if they were component manufacturers. The original regulatory language described a requirement for equipment manufacturers to certify as equipment manufacturers if they were installing uncertified components, but we have

      Page 9086

      found that the certification process is most straightforward if we treat them as component manufacturers.

      The test procedures originally allowed for manufacturers to use good engineering judgment to address technical concerns related to measuring emissions from narrow-diameter fuel lines. In 2013, SAE published a voluntary consensus standard (SAE J2996) specifying measurement procedures for these narrow-diameter fuel lines. We agree that the SAE standard reflects good engineering judgment in the effort to measure emissions and are therefore incorporating this standard by reference in Sec. 1060.515. This alternative SAE standard was designed for Small SI products, but it may be used in other applications as well; note, however, that U.S. Coast Guard requires measurements based on SAE J1527 in some cases. We are including the following clarifications and adjustments related to the specified SAE standards for all fuel-line permeation testing: (1) The test requires emission sampling over a 14-day period; (2) Two days of non-testing per week are allowed to accommodate weekend work schedules; (3) To remove any ambiguity from the published SAE standards, we are stating in our regulations that testing must occur at 232 degC; and (4) The final test result is based on a simple arithmetic average of measured emission values over the 14-day sampling period. These changes allow for internal consistency, and generally align with the procedures adopted by California ARB. To the extent that there are remaining differences, manufacturers may ask for approval to use different procedures under Sec. 1060.505(c)(2) or (c)(3).

      Correct a typographical error in the kPa pressure value for preconditioning fuel tanks for a permeation measurement. The psi value in the regulation is correct.

      Correct the sample calculation for determining an emission result from a diurnal emission test.

      Adjust the procedure to account for buoyancy effects in tank permeation measurements by replacing the requirement to use two identical tanks with a requirement to use a second tank that has a total volume that is within 5 percent of the test tank's total volume. This will allow manufacturers and test labs to rely on a smaller number of stock fuel tanks to make the necessary but minor corrections that result from fluctuating atmospheric pressure.

      Adjust and clarify diurnal test procedures: (1) Add a specification for in-tank thermocouples for tracking fuel temperature for testing marine fuel tanks; (2) Replace the hourly profile of fuel temperatures with clearer specification about tracking test fuel temperature from a specified starting point to a specified (calculated) endpoint. The vapor generation should be nearly constant between test runs as long as fuel temperature continues to increase from the low temperature to the high temperature; (3) Standardize the procedure for purging the evaporative canister to prepare for testing based on a simulation of the in-use experience; this is based on engine purge for land-based applications, and on passive (ambient) purge for marine applications. This canister preconditioning is a necessary step to establish a known starting point for designing a system that meets the diurnal emission standard; and (4) Include temperature tolerance bands for the diurnal temperature cycle. Note that we are not proposing or requesting comment on changing the test procedure for marine fuel tanks to base the temperature profile on ambient temperatures instead of fuel temperatures.

      Establish a gravimetric test method for determining mass of emissions for tanks with a diurnal emission standard of at least 2.0 grams of hydrocarbon. Emission test procedures involving an emission standard of less than 2.0 grams of hydrocarbon need the more accurate measurements available from using a flame ionization detector (FID) within a sealed enclosure.

    3. Portable Fuel Containers

      On February 26, 2007, EPA adopted a set of requirements to reduce emissions from portable fuel containers (PFC) at 40 CFR part 59, subpart F (72 FR 8533). EPA review of PFC designs and discussions with PFC manufacturers suggest that the manufacturers may have read the provisions of 40 CFR part 59, subpart F, too narrowly and that their interpretations may have unnecessarily constrained some design approaches that may have otherwise allowed for improved in-use performance and consumer satisfaction. EPA did not intend to impact manufacturer design approaches beyond those deemed by the manufacturer as necessary to meet the emission control requirements as otherwise specified in 40 CFR part 59, and is including language in this rule to clarify regulatory requirements that apply to PFCs. Specifically, the revised regulation states that it is allowable for manufacturers to design PFCs with vents to relieve pressure, provided that the venting device is in place during emission testing, and provided that the venting device closes automatically when not in use.

      The modifications to 40 CFR part 59, subpart F, do not change the regulatory requirements with regard to emission standards and test procedures, but better define some elements of design and clarify how various approaches would be considered in testing. Upon seeing these modifications to the regulations, PFC manufacturers may elect to pursue design approaches they deem appropriate, which they may have thought were not available to them previously.

    4. MARPOL Annex VI Implementation

      The Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (APPS) implements the provisions of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) Annex VI for the United States (33 U.S.C. 1901-1912). EPA adopted regulations in 2010 to summarize these requirements and to describe engine certification procedures and other relevant provisions as specified in APPS (75 FR 22896, April 30, 2010). MARPOL Annex VI has been amended since issuance of that Federal Register notice to include designation of the North American ECA and the U.S. Caribbean Sea ECA and various other changes. We are amending 40 CFR part 1043 in this rulemaking to align the regulations with the amendments of MARPOL Annex VI to facilitate stakeholder compliance, and to correct certain technical errors.

      First, the most fundamental step in updating 40 CFR part 1043 is to cite the 2013 publication of MARPOL Annex VI and the further amendments concluded at MEPC 66 in April 2014 (see 40 CFR 1043.100). Likewise, MARPOL Annex VI was recently amended to waive the fuel-sulfur requirements for certain steamships until January 1, 2020. Part 1043 already includes such a waiver for steamships operating in the Great Lakes. We are codifying the additional temporary steamship exemption in Sec. 1043.97. Note that covered steamships will be required to comply with the relevant sulfur limits when the exemption expires on January 1, 2020.

      Second, we inadvertently adopted regulatory language in 40 CFR part 1043 that differs from the language of Annex VI. For example, we originally adopted the provisions in 40 CFR part 1043 with an erroneous date, stating that the 0.10% fuel-sulfur standard applies starting January 1, 2016, which should be January 1, 2015. The Annex VI specification is enforceable with or without this correction in 40 CFR part 1043, but we want to make the change to avoid any possible confusion. We also identified the NOX standards based

      Page 9087

      on an engine's model year; this should identify the applicability of NOX standards based on the build date of new vessels, or on the date of major modifications in other circumstances. We are correcting these errors in part 1043.

      Third, we are adding clarifying language relating to public vessels. MARPOL Annex VI exempts public vessels from engine standards and fuel requirements. Public vessels are defined as ``warships, naval auxiliary vessels, and other vessels owned or operated by a sovereign country when engaged in noncommercial service.'' We want to clarify that any vessel that has a national security exemption (for engines or fuel) is automatically considered a public vessel.

      Fourth, we are clarifying regulatory provisions to address whether or how emission credits apply for EPA certificates and EIAPP certificates. Engine manufacturers are interested in getting an EPA certificate under 40 CFR part 1042 and an EIAPP certificate under 40 CFR part 1043 for the same engine. This would allow them maximum flexibility in selling engines to boat builders for installation in vessels used in domestic or international service. Certification to EPA standards under 40 CFR part 1042 allows manufacturers to use emission credits to make some engines with emission levels that are above the specified standard. MARPOL Annex VI and 40 CFR part 1043 do not have such an allowance. We are modifying the regulation to clarify that an engine may not be covered by both an EPA certificate and an EIAPP certificate if its certification under 40 CFR part 1042 depends on using emission credits to allow for an emission level above the specified standard. If an engine has emission levels below the specified standard and it is used to generate emission credits under 40 CFR part 1042, this would not disqualify an engine from also getting an EIAPP certificate under 40 CFR part 1043.

      Lastly, we are making clarifying edits to the fuels regulations under 40 CFR part 80 for MARPOL Annex VI implementation; the table below lists these edits. While some of these edits are purely corrections to typographical errors, we are also making edits to clarify the treatment of fuels under MARPOL Annex VI, Regulation 3 and Regulation 4. Regulation 3 authorizes trial programs that involve a permit allowing a ship operator to use fuel that exceeds the fuel-

      sulfur standards that would otherwise apply. Regulation 4 allows for flag states to approve the use of high-sulfur fuel for vessels that are equipped with technology that allows for an equivalent level of control. Specifically, we are amending the definition of ``ECA marine fuel'' at 40 CFR 80.2(ttt) to clarify that vessels with Regulation 3 permits or Regulation 4 equivalencies can in fact use fuel that exceeds the ECA marine fuel sulfur standard. Further, to provide producers, distributors, and marketers of fuel for use under a Regulation 3 permit or a Regulation 4 equivalency the ability to denote such fuel on their PTDs, we are amending 40 CFR 80.590 to provide these parties with express PTD statements that may be used in lieu of the statements that are currently in the regulations.

      MARPOL Annex VI-Related Amendments to 40 CFR Part 80, Subpart I

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Section Description of change

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      80.2(ttt).................... Amended the definition of ECA marine fuel

      to clarify that fuel allowed by MARPOL

      Annex VI Regulation 3 permits or

      Regulation 4 equivalencies under 40 CFR

      part 1043 is not required to meet the

      ECA marine fuel requirements.

      80.510 section heading....... Amending to clarify that this section

      applies to refiners and importers.

      80.510(k) and 80.511(b)(9)... Amending to clarify that fuel allowed by

      Regulation 3 permits or Regulation 4

      equivalencies is not required to meet

      the ECA marine fuel requirements.

      80.574(b).................... Amended to update the address for

      submitting ECA marine fuel alternative

      label requests.

      80.590(b).................... Amended to allow for PTD statements for

      use with fuel permitted for use under

      MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 3, Regulation

      4, or both.

      80.607 (a), (c), (d), (f).... Amended to remove references to ECA

      marine fuel, as research and development

      permits are separate from Regulation 3

      permits under 40 CFR part 1043.

      80.608(d).................... Amended to correct minor typographical

      errors.

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    5. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

      Additional information about these statutes and Executive Orders can be found at http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/laws-and-executive-orders.

  6. Executive Order 12866: Regulatory Planning and Review and Executive Order 13563: Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review

    This action is not a significant regulatory action and was therefore not submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review.

  7. Paperwork Reduction Act

    This action does not impose any new information collection burden under the PRA, since it merely clarifies and corrects existing regulatory language. OMB has previously approved the information collection activities contained in the existing regulations and has assigned OMB control numbers as noted in the table below.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Regulatory citation Item OMB Control No.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    40 CFR part 86............... Light-duty 2060-0104

    vehicle

    standards.

    40 CFR part 86............... Heavy-duty 2060-0287

    vehicle

    standards.

    40 CFR part 86............... In-use 2060-0086

    verification

    program.

    40 CFR part 80............... In-use fuel 2060-0437

    standards.

    40 CFR part 1043............. MARPOL Annex VI. 2060-0641

    40 CFR part 1054............. Small SI exhaust 2060-0338

    emission

    standards.

    40 CFR part 1060............. Nonroad SI 2060-0321, 2060-0338

    evaporative

    emission

    standards.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Page 9088

  8. Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA)

    I certify that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the RFA. In making this determination, the impact of concern is any significant adverse economic impact on small entities. An agency may certify that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities if the rule relieves regulatory burden, has no net burden or otherwise has a positive economic effect on the small entities subject to the rule. This rule merely clarifies and corrects existing regulatory language. We therefore anticipate no costs and therefore no regulatory burden associated with this rule. We have therefore concluded that this action will have no net regulatory burden for all directly regulated small entities.

  9. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    This action does not contain any unfunded mandate as described in UMRA, 2 U.S.C. 1531-1538, and does not significantly or uniquely affect small governments. The action imposes no enforceable duty on any state, local or tribal governments. Requirements for the private sector do not exceed $100 million in any one year.

  10. Executive Order 13132: Federalism

    This action does not have federalism implications. It will not have substantial direct effects on the states, on the relationship between the national government and the states, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government.

  11. Executive Order 13175: Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments

    This action does not have tribal implications as specified in Executive Order 13175. This rule merely corrects and clarifies regulatory provisions. Tribal governments would be affected only to the extent they purchase and use regulated vehicles or engines. Thus, Executive Order 13175 does not apply to this action.

  12. Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children From Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks

    EPA interprets Executive Order 13045 as applying only to those regulatory actions that concern environmental health or safety risks that the EPA has reason to believe may disproportionately affect children, per the definition of ``covered regulatory action'' in section 2-202 of the Executive Order. This action is not subject to Executive Order 13045 because it does not concern an environmental health risk or safety risk.

  13. Executive Order 13211: Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use

    This action is not subject to Executive Order 13211, because it is not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866.

    1. National Technology Transfer Advancement Act

    This action involves technical standards. EPA has decided to use the following voluntary consensus standards:

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Organization Standard Available from

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    SAE International..................... SAE J2996, Small Diameter Fuel Line www.sae.org.

    Permeation Test Procedure, Issued

    January 2013.

    ASTM International.................... ASTM D86-07, Standard Test Method for www.astm.org.

    Distillation of Petroleum Products at

    Atmospheric Pressure, approved January

    15, 2007.

    ASTM International.................... ASTM standard practice D4057-12, www.astm.org.

    Standard Practice for Manual Sampling

    of Petroleum and Petroleum Products,

    approved December 1, 2012.

    ASTM International.................... ASTM standard practice D4177-95 www.astm.org.

    (Reapproved 2010), Standard Practice

    for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum

    and Petroleum Products, approved May

    1, 2010.

    ASTM International.................... ASTM standard practice D5842-14, www.astm.org.

    Standard Practice for Sampling and

    Handling for Fuels for Volatility

    Measurement, approved January 15, 2014.

    ASTM International.................... ASTM standard practice D6299-13, www.astm.org.

    Standard Practice for Applying

    Statistical Quality Assurance and

    Control Charting Techniques to

    Evaluate Analytical Measurement System

    Performance, approved October 1, 2013.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    This action also involves technical standards for marine diesel engines. There are no voluntary consensus documents that address these technical standards. EPA has therefore decided to use the following standards from the International Maritime Organization:

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Organization Standard Available from

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    International Maritime Organization... MARPOL Annex VI, Regulations for the www.imo.org.

    Prevention of Pollution from Ships,

    Third Edition, 2013.

    International Maritime Organization... NOX Technical Code 2008, 2013 Edition... www.imo.org.

    International Maritime Organization... Annex 12, Resolution MEPC.251(66) from www.imo.org.

    the Report of the Marine Environment

    Protection Committee on its Sixty-Sixth

    Session, April 25, 2014.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  14. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

    This action is not expected to have any adverse human health or environmental impacts; as a result, the human health or environmental risk addressed by this action will not have potential disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on minority, low-income or indigenous populations.

  15. Congressional Review Act

    This action is subject to the CRA, and EPA will submit a rule report to each House of the Congress and to the Comptroller General of the United States. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

    Page 9089

    1. Statutory Provisions and Legal Authority

    Statutory authority for this action comes from 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q and 33 U.S.C. 1901-1912.

    List of Subjects

    40 CFR Part 59

    Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Confidential business information, Labeling, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds.

    40 CFR Part 80

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential Business Information, Diesel fuel, Fuel additives, Gasoline, Imports, Incorporation by reference, Labeling, Motor vehicle pollution, Penalties, Petroleum, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    40 CFR Part 85

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential Business Information, Imports, Labeling, Motor vehicle pollution, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Research, Warranties.

    40 CFR Part 86

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential Business Information, Imports, Labeling, Motor vehicle pollution, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Warranties.

    40 CFR Part 600

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Electric power, Fuel economy, Labeling, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    40 CFR Part 1037

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential business information, Labeling, Motor vehicle pollution, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Warranties.

    40 CFR Part 1043

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Imports, Incorporation by reference, Vessels, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    40 CFR Parts 1051 and 1054

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential business information, Imports, Labeling, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Warranties.

    40 CFR Part 1060

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Confidential business information, Imports, Incorporation by reference, Labeling, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Warranties.

    40 CFR Parts 1065 and 1066

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Research.

    Dated: February 2, 2015.

    Gina McCarthy,

    Administrator.

    For the reasons set out in the preamble, title 40, chapter I of the Code of Federal Regulations is amended as set forth below.

    PART 59--NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS

    0

    1. The authority citation for part 59 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7414 and 7511b(e).

    Subpart F--Amended

    0

    2. Section 59.611 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(1)(ii) to read as follows:

    Sec. 59.611 What evaporative emission requirements apply under this subpart?

    * * * * *

    (c) * * *

    (1) * * *

    (ii) For anyone to design, manufacture, or install emission control systems with features that disable, deactivate, reduce effectiveness, or bypass the emission controls, either actively or passively. However, you may include a vent that the operator can open to bypass emission controls if that vent closes automatically (i.e., without operator involvement). You may include such design features if they operate during emission tests described in subpart F of this part. For example, you may include an integrated or external manually activated device in the portable fuel container's design to temporarily relieve pressure, provided that the device is in place during emission testing and closes automatically when not in use.

    * * * * *

    0

    3. Section 59.623 is amended by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:

    Sec. 59.623 What must I include in my application?

    * * * * *

    (a) Describe the emission family's specifications and other basic parameters of the emission controls. List each distinguishable configuration in the emission family. Include descriptions and part numbers for all detachable components such as spouts and caps and describe any devices designed for venting pressure, if applicable.

    * * * * *

    0

    4. Section 59.625 is amended by adding paragraph (b)(6) to read as follows:

    Sec. 59.625 How do I select emission families?

    * * * * *

    (b) * * *

    (6) Strategy for venting pressure.

    * * * * *

    PART 80--REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES

    0

    5. The authority citation for part 80 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7414, 7521, 7542, 7545, and 7601(a).

    Subpart A--General Provisions

    0

    6. Section 80.2 is amended by:

    0

    1. Revising paragraph (ttt).

      0

    2. Removing and reserving paragraph (cccc).

      The revisions read as follows:

      Sec. 80.2 Definitions.

      * * * * *

      (ttt) ECA marine fuel is diesel, distillate, or residual fuel that meets the criteria of paragraph (ttt)(1) of this section, but not the criteria of paragraph (ttt)(2) of this section.

      (1) All diesel, distillate, or residual fuel used, intended for use, or made available for use in Category 3 marine vessels while the vessels are operating within an Emission Control Area (ECA), or an ECA associated area, is ECA marine fuel, unless it meets the criteria of paragraph (ttt)(2) of this section.

      (2) ECA marine fuel does not include any of the following fuel:

      (i) Fuel used by exempted or excluded vessels (such as exempted steamships), or fuel used by vessels allowed by the U.S. government pursuant to MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 3 or Regulation 4

      Page 9090

      to exceed the fuel sulfur limits while operating in an ECA or an ECA associated area (see 33 U.S.C. 1903).

      (ii) Fuel that conforms fully to the requirements of this part for NRLM diesel fuel (including being designated as NRLM).

      (iii) Fuel used, or made available for use, in any diesel engines not installed on a Category 3 marine vessel.

      * * * * *

      (cccc) Reserved

      * * * * *

      0

      7. Section 80.8 is amended by revising paragraph (e)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.8 Sampling methods for gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel additives, and renewable fuels.

      * * * * *

      (e) * * *

      (1) ASTM International material. The following standards are available from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (877) 909-ASTM, or http://www.astm.org:

      (i) ASTM D4057-12, Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products, approved December 1, 2012 (``ASTM D4057'').

      (ii) ASTM D4177-95 (Reapproved 2010), Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products, approved May 1, 2010 (``ASTM D4177'').

      (iii) ASTM D5842-14, Standard Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement, approved January 15, 2014 (``ASTM D5842'').

      (iv) ASTM D5854-96 (Reapproved 2010), Standard Practice for Mixing and Handling of Liquid Samples of Petroleum and Petroleum Products, approved May 1, 2010 (``ASTM D5854'').

      * * * * *

      Subpart D--Reformulated Gasoline

      0

      8. Section 80.46 is amended by:

      0

    3. Revising paragraph (b)(1);

      0

    4. Revising paragraph (c)(2) introductory text;

      0

    5. Revising paragraph (d);

      0

    6. Revising paragraph (e);

      0

    7. Revising paragraph (f)(1);

      0

    8. Revising paragraph (g)(1); and

      0

    9. Revising paragraph (h)(1).

      The revisions read as follows:

      Sec. 80.46 Measurement of reformulated gasoline and conventional gasoline fuel parameters.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (1) Through December 31, 2015, olefin content must be determined using ASTM D1319. Beginning January 1, 2016, the olefin content of gasoline must be determined by a test method approved under Sec. 80.47.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (2) Beginning January 1, 2016, RVP must be determined by a test method approved under Sec. 80.47, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

      * * * * *

      (d) Distillation. Through December 31, 2015, distillation parameters must be determined using ASTM D86. Beginning January 1, 2016, the distillation parameters must be determined by a test method approved under Sec. 80.47. (Note: The precision estimates for reproducibility in ASTM D86-12 do not apply; see Sec. 80.47(h).)

      (e) Benzene. Through December 31, 2015, benzene content must be determined using ASTM D3606, except that instrument parameters shall be adjusted to ensure complete resolution of the benzene, ethanol and methanol peaks because ethanol and methanol may cause interference with ASTM D3606 when present. Beginning January 1, 2016, the benzene content must be determined by a test method approved under Sec. 80.47.

      (f)(1) Through December 31, 2015, aromatic content must be determined using ASTM D5769, except the sample chilling requirements in section 8 of this standard method are optional. Beginning January 1, 2016, the aromatic content must be determined by a test method approved under Sec. 80.47.

      * * * * *

      (g) * * * (1) Through December 31, 2015, oxygen and oxygenate content must be determined using ASTM D5599. Beginning January 1, 2016, oxygen and oxygenate content must be determined by a test method approved under Sec. 80.47.

      * * * * *

      (h) * * *

      (1) ASTM International material. The following standards are available from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (877) 909-ASTM, or http://www.astm.org:

      (i) ASTM D86-12, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, approved December 1, 2012 (``ASTM D86'').

      (ii) ASTM D1319-13, Standard Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption, approved May 1, 2013 (``ASTM D1319'').

      (iii) ASTM D2622-10, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, approved February 15, 2010 (``ASTM D2622'').

      (iv) ASTM D3120-08, Standard Test Method for Trace Quantities of Sulfur in Light Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Oxidative Microcoulometry, approved December 15, 2008 (``ASTM D3120'').

      (v) ASTM D3246-11, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Gas by Oxidative Microcoulometry, approved June 1, 2011 (``ASTM D3246'').

      (vi) ASTM D3606-10, Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Finished Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved October 1, 2010 (``ASTM D3606'').

      (vii) ASTM D4468-85 (Reapproved 2011), Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Gaseous Fuels by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric Colorimetry, approved November 1, 2011 (``ASTM D4468'').

      (viii) ASTM D4815-13, Standard Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography, approved October 1, 2013 (``ASTM D4815'').

      (ix) ASTM D5191-13, Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method), approved December 1, 2013 (``ASTM D5191'').

      (x) ASTM D5453-12, Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence, approved November 1, 2012 (``ASTM D5453'').

      (xi) ASTM D5599-00 (Reapproved 2010), Standard Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection, approved October 1, 2010 (``ASTM D5599'').

      (xii) ASTM D5769-10, Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasolines by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, approved May 1, 2010 (``ASTM D5769'').

      (xiii) ASTM D6550-10, Standard Test Method for Determination of Olefin Content of Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography, approved October 1, 2010 (``ASTM D6550'').

      (xiv) ASTM D6667-10, Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Volatile Sulfur in Gaseous Hydrocarbons and Liquefied Petroleum

      Page 9091

      Gases by Ultraviolet Fluorescence, approved October 1, 2010 (``ASTM D6667'').

      (xv) ASTM D6920-13, Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Naphthas, Distillates, Reformulated Gasolines, Diesels, Biodiesels, and Motor Fuels by Oxidative Combustion and Electrochemical Detection, approved September 15, 2013 (``ASTM D6920'').

      (xvi) ASTM D7039-13, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, approved September 15, 2013 (``ASTM D7039'').

      * * * * *

      0

      9. Section 80.47 is amended by:

      0

    10. Revising paragraph (a)(7);

      0

    11. Revising paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2)(i), and (b)(2)(ii);

      0

    12. Revising paragraphs (c)(1), (c)(2)(i), and (c)(2)(ii);

      0

    13. Revising paragraph (d)(1);

      0

    14. Revising paragraph (e)(1);

      0

    15. Revising paragraph (f)(1);

      0

    16. Revising paragraph (g)(1);

      0

    17. Revising paragraph (h)(1);

      0

    18. Revising paragraph (i)(1);

      0

    19. Revising paragraph (j)(1);

      0

    20. Revising paragraph (l);

      0

    21. Revising paragraph (m)(6);

      0

    22. Revising paragraphs (n)(1), (n)(2)(i), and (n)(2)(ii), and removing and reserving paragraph (n)(2)(iv);

      0

    23. Revising paragraphs (o)(1), (o)(2)(i), (o)(2)(ii), and removing and reserving paragraph (o)(2)(iv);

      0

    24. Revising paragraphs (p)(1), (p)(3)(i), and (p)(3)(ii), and removing and reserving paragraph (p)(3)(iv); and

      0

    25. Revising paragraph (r)(1).

      The revisions read as follows:

      Sec. 80.47 Performance-based Analytical Test Method Approach.

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (7) Locally-named reference materials are gasoline or diesel fuels that are usually from the regular production of the facility where they are used in laboratory quality control efforts and have been analyzed using the designated method (either by the facility's lab or by a reference lab) to obtain an estimate of their concentration.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * * (1) Precision. Beginning January 1, 2016, for motor vehicle gasoline, gasoline blendstock, and gasoline fuel additives subject to the gasoline sulfur standard at Sec. Sec. 80.195 and 80.1603, the maximum allowable standard deviation computed from the results of a minimum of 20 tests made over 20 days (tests may be arranged into no fewer than five batches of four or fewer tests each, with only one such batch allowed per day over the minimum of 20 days) on samples using good laboratory practices taken from a single homogeneous commercially available gasoline must be less than or equal to 1.5 times the repeatability ``r'' divided by 2.77, where ``r'' equals the ASTM repeatability of ASTM D7039 (Example: A 10ppm sulfur gasoline sample: Maximum allowable standard deviation of 20 testsa) less than 30.00 ppm but greater than 10.00 ppm, the refiner may generate credits using the equation specified in paragraph (b) of this section for use in complying with the annual average standards of subpart H of this part.

      (2) From January 1, 2017 through December 31, 2019, if a small refiner or small volume refinery has an annual average sulfur level (Sa) less than 10.00 ppm, the refiner may generate credits using the equation specified in paragraph (c) of this section for use in complying with the annual average standards of Sec. 80.1603(c)(1) and the following equation for complying with the annual average standards of subpart H of this part:

      CRT2 = Va x (20.00)

      Where:

      CRT2 = Credits generated for the averaging period for use in complying with the annual average standards of subpart H of this part only.

      Va = Total annual volume of gasoline produced at a refinery or imported during the averaging period.

      (For example: A small refiner with an annual average sulfur level of 8 ppm in 2018 may generate CRa = 2 ppm-volume credits (10-8) for compliance with the annual average standards of Sec. 80.1603(c)(1) plus CRT2 = 20 ppm-volume credits (30-10) for compliance with the annual average sulfur standards of subpart H of this part.)

      * * * * *

      0

      34. Section 80.1616 is amended by adding and reserving paragraph (a)(4) and revising paragraph (b)(2) to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1616 Credit use and transfer.

      (a) * * *

      (4) Reserved

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (2) Credits generated under Sec. 80.1615(b) through (d) are valid for use for five years after the year in which they are generated, except that any CRa credits generated in 2015 and 2016 and any remaining CRT2 credits will expire and become invalid after December 31, 2019, (with the 2019 annual compliance report, due March 31, 2020).

      * * * * *

      0

      35. Section 80.1620 is amended by revising paragraphs (d), (e)(1), (e)(2), and (f)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1620 Small refiner definition.

      * * * * *

      (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (e)(1) of this section, a refiner that acquires or reactivates a refinery that was shut down or non-operational during calendar year 2012, may apply for small refiner status under this subpart O.

      (e) * * *

      (1) Refiners with refineries built or started up on or after January 1, 2013.

      (2) Persons who exceed the employee or crude oil capacity criteria under this section on January 1, 2013, but who meet these criteria after that date, regardless of whether the reduction in employees or crude oil capacity is due

      Page 9100

      to operational changes at the refinery or a company sale or reorganization.

      * * * * *

      (f)(1) A refiner approved as a small refiner under Sec. 80.1622 who subsequently ceases production of gasoline from processing crude oil through refinery processing units, employs more than 1,500 people, or exceeds the 155,000 bpcd crude oil capacity limit after January 1, 2013 as a result of merger with or acquisition of or by another entity, is disqualified as a small refiner, except as provided for under paragraph (f)(4) of this section. If such disqualification occurs, the refiner shall notify EPA in writing no later than 20 days following the disqualifying event.

      * * * * *

      0

      36. Section 80.1621 is amended by adding and reserving paragraph (c) and adding paragraph (d) to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1621 Small volume refinery definition.

      * * * * *

      (c) Reserved

      (d)(1) A refinery approved as a small refinery under Sec. 80.1622 that subsequently ceases production of gasoline from processing crude oil through refinery processing units or exceeds the 75,000 barrel average aggregate daily crude oil throughput limit is disqualified as a small refinery. If such disqualification occurs, the refinery shall notify EPA in writing no later than 20 days following the disqualifying event.

      (2) Any refinery whose status changes under this paragraph (d) shall meet the applicable standards of Sec. 80.1603 within a period of up to 30 months from the disqualifying event.

      0

      37. Section 80.1640 is amended by revising paragraph (a)(2) to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1640 Standards and requirements that apply to refiners producing gasoline by blending blendstocks into previously certified gasoline (PCG).

      (a) * * *

      (2) To accomplish the exclusion required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the refiner must determine the volume and sulfur content of the PCG used at the refinery and the volume and sulfur content of the gasoline produced at the refinery, and use the compliance calculation procedures in paragraphs (a)(3) and (4) of this section.

      * * * * *

      0

      38. Section 80.1642 is amended by revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(3) to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1642 Sampling and testing requirements for producers and importers of denatured fuel ethanol and other oxygenates for use by oxygenate blenders.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (1) The sulfur content of the batch of DFE shall be calculated by volume weighting the sulfur contribution from the denaturant, and the neat ethanol used.

      * * * * *

      (3) The sulfur content of the certified denaturant used in the calculation in paragraph (c)(1) of this section must be consistent with the PTD obtained from a registered certified ethanol denaturant producer or importer in accordance with the requirements of Sec. 80.1611. If the PTD from the certified ethanol denaturant states that the sulfur content is 330 ppm, then the sulfur content of the sulfur content of the ethanol denaturant must be assumed to be 330 ppm.

      * * * * *

      0

      39. Section 80.1645 is amended by revising the section heading and the introductory text to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1645 Sample retention requirements for producers and importers of certified ethanol denaturant.

      Beginning January 1, 2017, or on the first day that any producer or importer of ethanol denaturant designates a batch of certified ethanol denaturant, whichever is earlier, the ethanol denaturant producer or importer shall do all the following:

      * * * * *

      0

      40. Section 80.1650 is amended by revising paragraphs (a)(4), (b), and (g)(3) to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1650 Registration.

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (4) Producer or importer of certified ethanol denaturant subject to the standards under Sec. 80.1611.

      (b) Registration dates. (1) Any gasoline refiner or importer required to register shall do so by December 1, 2016, or at least 30 days in advance of the first date that such person will produce or import reformulated gasoline, conventional gasoline, RBOB, or CBOB. If a previously unregistered refiner or importer intends to generate credits prior to January 1, 2017 (pursuant to Sec. 80.1615), registration must occur at least 90 days prior to submitting an annual compliance report demonstrating credit generation.

      (2) Any oxygenate producer or importer required to register shall do so by November 1, 2016, or at least 60 days in advance of the first date that such person will produce or import oxygenate.

      (3) Any oxygenate blender required to register shall do so by November 1, 2016, or at least 90 days in advance of the first date that such person will blend oxygenate into RBOB.

      (4) Any ethanol denaturant producer or importer required to register shall do so by November 1, 2016, or at least 60 days in advance of the first date that such person will produce or import ethanol denaturant.

      * * * * *

      (g) * * *

      (3) Any oxygenate blender shall submit updated registration information to the Administrator within thirty days of any occasion when the registration information previously supplied becomes incomplete or inaccurate.

      * * * * *

      0

      41. Section 80.1652 is amended by revising paragraph (c) introductory text to read as follows:

      Sec. 80.1652 Reporting requirements for gasoline refiners, gasoline importers, oxygenate producers, and oxygenate importers.

      * * * * *

      (c) Oxygenate producer and importer annual reports. Any oxygenate producer, for each of its production facilities, and any importer for the oxygenate it imports, shall submit a report for each calendar year period that includes all the following information:

      * * * * *

      Sec. 80.1667 Amended

      0

      42. Section 80.1667 is amended by removing and reserving paragraph (c)(1).

      PART 85--CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES

      0

      43. The authority citation for part 85 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      Subpart V--Amended

      Sec. 85.2108 Removed

      0

      44. Remove Sec. 85.2108.

      PART 86--CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES

      0

      45. The authority citation for part 86 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      0

      46. Section 86.1 is amended by revising paragraph (b) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1 Incorporation by reference.

      * * * * *

      Page 9101

      (b) ASTM International material. The following standards are available from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959, (610) 832-9585, or http://www.astm.org/:

      (1) ASTM C1549-09, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer, approved August 1, 2009 (``ASTM C1549''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.1869-12(b).

      (2) ASTM D86-12, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, approved December 1, 2012 (``ASTM D86''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a), 86.113-94(b), 86.213(a), and 86.513(a).

      (3) ASTM D93-13, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-

      Martens Closed Cup Tester, approved July 15, 2013 (``ASTM D93''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.113-94(b).

      (4) ASTM D445-12, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity), approved April 15, 2012 (``ASTM D445''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.113-

      94(b).

      (5) ASTM D613-13, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil, approved December 1, 2013 (``ASTM D613''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.113-94(b).

      (6) ASTM D975-13a, Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils, approved December 1, 2013 (``ASTM D975''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.1910(c).

      (7) ASTM D976-06 (Reapproved 2011), Standard Test Method for Calculated Cetane Index of Distillate Fuels, approved October 1, 2011 (``ASTM D976''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.113-94(b).

      (8) ASTM D1319-13, Standard Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption, approved May 1, 2013 (``ASTM D1319''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a), 86.213(a), and 86.513(a).

      (9) ASTM D1945-03 (reapproved 2010), Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography, approved January 1, 2010 (``ASTM D1945''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-94(e) and 86.513(d).

      (10) ASTM D2163-07, Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrocarbons in Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases and Propane/Propene Mixtures by Gas Chromatography, approved December 1, 2007 (``ASTM D2163''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-94(f).

      (11) ASTM D2622-10, Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, approved February 15, 2010 (``ASTM D2622''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a), 86.113-94(b), 86.213(a), and 86.513(a).

      (12) ASTM D2699-13b, Standard Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, approved October 1, 2013 (``ASTM D2699''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a) and 86.213(a).

      (13) ASTM D2700-13b, Standard Test Method for Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, approved October 1, 2013 (``ASTM D2700''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a) and 86.213(a).

      (14) ASTM D3231-13, Standard Test Method for Phosphorus in Gasoline, approved June 15, 2013 (``ASTM D3231''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a), 86.213(a), and 86.513(a).

      (15) ASTM D3237-12, Standard Test Method for Lead in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, approved June 1, 2012 (``ASTM D3237''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a), 86.213(a), and 86.513(a).

      (16) ASTM D4052-11, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter, approved October 15, 2011 (``ASTM D4052''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.113-94(b).

      (17) ASTM D5186-03 (Reapproved 2009), Standard Test Method for Determination of the Aromatic Content and Polynuclear Aromatic Content of Diesel Fuels and Aviation Turbine Fuels by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, approved April 15, 2009 (``ASTM D5186''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.113-94(b).

      (18) ASTM D5191-13, Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method), approved December 1, 2013 (``ASTM D5191''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.113-04(a), 86.213(a), and 86.513(a).

      (19) ASTM E29-93a, Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications, approved March 15, 1993 (``ASTM E29''), IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 86.004-

      15(c), 86.007-11(a), 86.007-15(m), 86.1803-01, 86.1823-01(a), 86.1824-

      01(c), 86.1825-01(c).

      (20) ASTM E903-96, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres, approved April 10, 1996 (``ASTM E903''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.1869-12(b).

      (21) ASTM E1918-06, Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Surfaces in the Field, approved August 15, 2006 (``ASTM E1918''), IBR approved for Sec. 86.1869-12(b).

      * * * * *

      Subpart A--General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

      0

      47. Section 86.007-35 is revised to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.007-35 Labeling.

      Section 86.007-35 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from Sec. 86.095-35. Where a paragraph in Sec. 86.095-35 is identical and applicable to Sec. 86.007-35, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement ``Reserved. For guidance see Sec. 86.095-35.''.

      (a) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle (or motor vehicle engine) subject to the applicable emission standards (and family emission limits, as appropriate) of this subpart, shall, at the time of manufacture, affix a permanent legible label, of the type and in the manner described below, containing the information hereinafter provided, to all production models of such vehicles (or engines) available for sale to the public and covered by a Certificate of Conformity under Sec. 86.007-30(a).

      (a)(1)-(2) Reserved

      (a)(3) heading through (b) Reserved. For guidance see Sec. 86.095-35.

      (c) Vehicles powered by model year 2007 through 2013 diesel-fueled engines must include permanent, readily visible labels on the dashboard (or instrument panel) and near all fuel inlets that state ``Use Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Only''; or ``Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Only''.

      (d) through (g) Reserved

      (h) Reserved. For guidance see Sec. 86.095-35.

      (i) Reserved

      (j) The Administrator may approve in advance other label content and formats provided the alternative label contains information consistent with this section.

      0

      48. Section 86.095-35 is amended by revising paragraph (a)(4) and removing and reserving paragraph (g) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.095-35 Labeling.

      (a) * * *

      (4) Heavy-duty vehicles employing a fuel or fuels covered by evaporative

      Page 9102

      emission standards. This paragraph (a)(4) applies for vehicles subject to evaporative emission standards under this subpart, as described in Sec. 86.016-1(a)(4). See 40 CFR part 1037 for provisions that apply in later model years.

      (i) A permanent, legible label shall be affixed in a readily visible position in the engine compartment. If such vehicles do not have an engine compartment, the label required in this paragraph (a)(4) shall be affixed in a readily available position on the operator's enclosure or on the engine.

      (ii) The label shall be affixed by the vehicle manufacturer who has been issued the Certificate of Conformity for such vehicle, in such a manner that it cannot be removed without destroying or defacing the label. The label shall not be affixed to any equipment which is easily detached from such vehicle.

      (iii) The label shall contain the following information lettered in the English language in block letters and numerals, which shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label:

      (A) The label heading: Vehicle Emission Control Information;

      (B) Full corporate name and trademark of manufacturer;

      (C) Evaporative family identification;

      (D) The maximum nominal fuel tank capacity (in gallons), as specified in 40 CFR 1037.135; and

      (E) An unconditional statement of compliance with the appropriate model year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations which apply to XXX-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

      (F) Vehicles granted final admission under Sec. 85.1505 of this chapter must comply with the labeling requirements contained in Sec. 85.1510 of this chapter.

      * * * * *

      (g) Reserved

      * * * * *

      Subpart B--Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures

      0

      49. Section 86.101 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2)(i), and (b)(3) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.101 General applicability.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (1) Through model year 2021, manufacturers may use the test procedures specified in paragraph (c) or (d) of this section or, using good engineering judgement, elements of both. For any EPA testing before model year 2022, EPA will use the manufacturer's selected procedures for applying acceptable speed-tolerance criteria (either Sec. 86.115-78 or 40 CFR 1066.425(c)). For any other parameters, EPA may conduct testing using either of the specified procedures. As allowed under this part, manufacturers may use carryover data from previous model years to demonstrate compliance with emission standards, without regard to the provisions of this section.

      (2) * * *

      (i) For vehicles certified to any of the Tier 3 emission standards specified in subpart S of this part, determine overall driver accuracy based on drive-cycle metrics as described in 40 CFR 1066.425(j).

      * * * * *

      (3) For model years 2022 and later, manufacturers must use the test procedures specified in paragraph (d) of this section. Manufacturers may continue to use data based on the test procedures specified in paragraph (c) of this section for an engine family in 2022 and later model years, as long as the engine family is eligible for certification with carryover emission data.

      * * * * *

      0

      50. Section 86.113-04 is amended by revising paragraph (a)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.113-04 Fuel specifications.

      * * * * *

      (a) Gasoline fuel. (1) Gasoline meeting the following specifications, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, must be used for exhaust and evaporative emission testing:

      Table 1 of Sec. 86.113-04--Test Fuel Specifications for Gasoline

      Without Ethanol

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Reference

      Item Regular procedure \1\

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Research octane, Minimum \2\.... 93................ ASTM D2699; ASTM

      D2700

      Octane sensitivity \2\.......... 7.5............... ASTM D2699; ASTM

      D2700

      Distillation Range (degF):

      Evaporated initial boiling 75-95............. ASTM D86

      point \3\.

      10% evaporated.............. 120-135...........

      50% evaporated.............. 200-230...........

      90% evaporated.............. 300-325...........

      Evaporated final boiling 415 Maximum.......

      point.

      Hydrocarbon composition (vol %):

      Olefins..................... 10% Maximum....... ASTM D1319

      Aromatics................... 35% Maximum.......

      Saturates................... Remainder.........

      Lead, g/gallon (g/liter), 0.050 (0.013)..... ASTM D3237

      Maximum.

      Phosphorous, g/gallon (g/liter), 0.005 (0.0013).... ASTM D3231

      Maximum.

      Total sulfur, wt. % \4\......... 0.0015-0.008...... ASTM D2622

      Dry Vapor Pressure Equivalent 8.7-9.2 (60.0- ASTM D5191

      (DVPE), psi (kPa) \5\. 63.4).

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ ASTM procedures are incorporated by reference in Sec. 86.1.

      \2\ Octane specifications are optional for manufacturer testing.

      \3\ For testing at altitudes above 1,219 m (4000 feet), the specified

      range is 75-105 degF.

      \4\ Sulfur concentration will not exceed 0.0045 weight percent for EPA

      testing.

      \5\ For testing unrelated to evaporative emission control, the specified

      range is 8.0-9.2 psi (55.2-63.4 kPa). For testing at altitudes above

      1,219 m (4000 feet), the specified range is 7.6-8.0 psi (52.4-55.2

      kPa). Calculate dry vapor pressure equivalent, DVPE, based on the

      measured total vapor pressure, pT, using the following equation: DVPE

      (psi) = 0.956 middot pT-0.347 (or DVPE (kPa) = 0.956 middot pT-

      2.39). DVPE is intended to be equivalent to Reid Vapor Pressure using

      a different test method.

      Page 9103

      * * * * *

      Subpart C--Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures

      0

      51. Section 86.201 is revised to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.201 General applicability.

      (a) Vehicles are subject to cold temperature testing requirements as described in subpart S of this part and 40 CFR part 600.

      (b) Migration to 40 CFR parts 1065 and 1066. This subpart transitions to rely on the test procedure specifications in 40 CFR parts 1065 and 1066 as follows:

      (1) Through model year 2021, manufacturers may use the test procedures specified in paragraph (c) or (d) of this section or, using good engineering judgement, elements of both. For any EPA testing before model year 2022, EPA will use the manufacturer's selected procedures for applying acceptable speed-tolerance criteria. For any other parameters, EPA may conduct testing using either of the specified procedures. As allowed under this part, manufacturers may use carryover data from previous model years to demonstrate compliance with emission standards, without regard to the provisions of this section.

      (2) For vehicles certified before model year 2022 to any of the Tier 3 emission standards specified in subpart S of this part, manufacturers must determine overall driver accuracy based on driven cycle energy as described in 40 CFR 1066.425(j).

      (c) Interim procedures. Through model year 2021, manufacturers may certify vehicles based on data collected according to previously published cold temperature and intermediate temperature testing procedures.

      (d) Long-term procedures. Starting in model year 2022, perform testing to measure CO and NMHC emissions and determine fuel economy as described in 40 CFR part 1066; see especially 40 CFR 1066.710. We may approve the use of previously published cold temperature and intermediate temperature testing procedures for later model years as an alternative procedure under 40 CFR 1066.10(c). Perform intermediate temperature testing as follows:

      (1) For testing during ambient temperatures of less than 50 degF (10 degC), perform testing as described in 40 CFR part 1066, subpart H.

      (2) For testing at temperatures of 50 degF (10 degC) or higher, perform FTP testing as described in 40 CFR part 1066.

      (e) Section 86.213 describes special provisions related to test fuel specifications.

      0

      52. Section 86.213 is amended by revising Table 1 in paragraph (a)(2) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.213 Fuel specifications.

      (a) * * *

      (2) * * *

      Table 1 of Sec. 86.213--Cold Temperature Test Fuel Specifications for Gasoline Without Ethanol

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Item Regular Premium Reference procedure \1\

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      (RON+MON)/2 \2\...................... 87.80.3.... 92.30.5.... ASTM D2699; ASTM D2700

      Sensitivity \3\...................... 7.5.................... 7.5.................... ASTM D2699; ASTM D2700

      Distillation Range (degF):

      Evaporated initial boiling point. 76-96.................. 76-96.................. ASTM D86

      10% evaporated................... 98-118................. 105-125................

      50% evaporated................... 179-214................ 195-225................

      90% evaporated................... 316-346................ 316-346................

      Evaporated final boiling point... 413 Maximum............ 413 Maximum............

      Hydrocarbon composition (vol %):

      Olefins.......................... 12.55.0.... 10.55.0.... ASTM D1319

      Aromatics........................ 26.44.0.... 32.04.0....

      Saturates........................ Remainder.............. Remainder..............

      Lead, g/gallon....................... 0.01, Maximum.......... 0.01, Maximum.......... ASTM D3237

      Phosphorous, g/gallon................ 0.005, Maximum......... 0.005, Maximum......... ASTM D3231

      Total sulfur, wt. % \3\.............. 0.0015-0.008........... 0.0015-0.008........... ASTM D2622

      RVP, psi............................. 11.50.3.... 11.50.3.... ASTM D5191

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ ASTM procedures are incorporated by reference in Sec. 86.1.

      \2\ Octane specifications are optional for manufacturer testing. The premium fuel specifications apply for

      vehicles designed to use high-octane premium fuel.

      \3\ Sulfur concentration will not exceed 0.0045 weight percent for EPA testing.

      * * * * *

      Subpart F--Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures

      0

      53. Section 86.513 is amended by revising paragraph (a)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.513 Fuel and engine lubricant specifications.

      (a) * * *

      (1) Gasoline meeting the following specifications, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, must be used for exhaust and evaporative emission testing:

      Table 1 of Sec. 86.513--Gasoline Test Fuel Specifications

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Item Value Procedure \1\

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Distillation Range:

      1. Initial boiling point, 23.9-35.0 \2\... ASTM D86

      degC.

      Page 9104

      2. 10% point, degC..... 48.9-57.2.......

      3. 50% point, degC..... 93.3-110.0......

      4. 90% point, degC..... 148.9-162.8.....

      5. End point, degC..... 212.8 maximum...

      Hydrocarbon composition:

      1. Olefins, volume %..... 10 maximum...... ASTM D1319

      2. Aromatics, volume %... 35 maximum......

      3. Saturates............. Remainder.......

      Lead (organic), g/liter...... 0.013 maximum... ASTM D3237

      Phosphorous, g/liter......... 0.0013 maximum.. ASTM D3231

      Sulfur, weight %............. 0.008 maximum... ASTM D2622

      Dry Vapor Pressure Equivalent 55.2 to 63.4 \3\ ASTM D5191

      (DVPE), kPa.

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ ASTM procedures are incorporated by reference in Sec. 86.1.

      \2\ For testing at altitudes above 1,219 m, the specified initial

      boiling point range is (23.9 to 40.6) degC.

      \3\ For testing at altitudes above 1,219 m, the specified volatility

      range is 52 to 55 kPa. Calculate dry vapor pressure equivalent, DVPE,

      based on the measured total vapor pressure, pT, using the following

      equation: DVPE (kPa) = 0.956 middot pT-2.39 (or DVPE (psi) = 0.956

      middot pT-0.347). DVPE is intended to be equivalent to Reid Vapor

      Pressure using a different test method.

      * * * * *

      Sec. 86.513-2004 Removed

      0

      54. Remove Sec. 86.513-2004.

      Sec. 86.529-98 Amended

      0

      55. Section 86.529-98 paragraph (b) is amended in Figure F98-9, under the first column titled ``Loaded vehicle mass (kg)'' by removing ``565-

      665'' and adding ``656-665'' in its place.

      Subpart S--General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

      0

      56. The heading for subpart S is revised as set forth above.

      0

      57. Section 86.1801-12 is amended by:

      0

    26. Revising paragraph (a)(2)(ii);

      0

    27. Adding paragraph (a)(2)(iii);

      0

    28. Revising paragraph (a)(3) introductory text;

      0

    29. Removing paragraph (a)(4); and

      0

    30. Redesignating paragraph (a)(5) as paragraph (a)(4).

      The revisions and addition read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1801-12 Applicability.

      (a) * * *

      (2) * * *

      (ii) Greenhouse gas emission standards apply as specified in 40 CFR part 1037 instead of the standards specified in this subpart.

      (iii) The provisions of this subpart are optional for diesel-fueled Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles in a given model year if those vehicles are equipped with engines certified to the appropriate standards in Sec. 86.007-11 for which less than half of the engine family's sales for the model year in the United States are for complete Class 3 heavy-duty vehicles. This includes engines sold to all vehicle manufacturers. If you are the original manufacturer of the engine and the vehicle, base this showing on your sales information. If you manufacture the vehicle but are not the original manufacturer of the engine, you must use your best estimate of the original manufacturer's sales information.

      (3) The provisions of this subpart generally do not apply to incomplete heavy-duty vehicles or to complete vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR (see subpart A of this part and 40 CFR parts 1036 and 1037). However, this subpart applies to such vehicles in the following cases:

      * * * * *

      0

      58. Section 86.1803-01 is amended by revising the definition of ``Averaging set'' to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1803-01 Definitions.

      * * * * *

      Averaging set means a category or subcategory of vehicles within which test groups can average and trade emission credits with one another.

      * * * * *

      0

      59. Section 86.1805-17 is amended by revising paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1805-17 Useful life.

      (a) General provisions. The useful life values specified in this section apply for all exhaust, evaporative, refueling, and OBD emission requirements described in this subpart, except for standards that are specified to apply only at certification. These useful life requirements also apply to all air conditioning leakage credits, air conditioning efficiency credits, and other credit programs used by the manufacturer to comply with the fleet-average CO2 emission standards in Sec. 86.1818. Useful life values are specified as a given number of calendar years or miles of driving, whichever comes first.

      (b) Greenhouse gas pollutants. The emission standards in Sec. 86.1818 apply for a useful life of 10 years or 120,000 miles for LDV and LLDT and 11 years or 120,000 miles for HLDT and MDPV. Manufacturers may alternatively certify based on a longer useful life as specified in paragraph (d) of this section.

      (c) Cold temperature emission standards. The cold temperature NMHC emission standards in Sec. 86.1811 apply for a useful life of 10 years or 120,000 miles for LDV and LLDT, and 11 years or 120,000 miles for HLDT and HDV. The cold temperature CO emission standards in Sec. 86.1811 apply for a useful life of 5 years or 50,000 miles.

      * * * * *

      0

      60. Section 86.1806-17 is amended by revising paragraph (a)(8) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1806-17 Onboard diagnostics.

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (8) Apply thresholds for exhaust emission malfunctions from Tier 3 vehicles based on the thresholds calculated for the corresponding bin standards in the California LEV II program as prescribed for the latest model year in 13 CCR 1968.2(e) and (f). For example, for Tier 3 Bin 160 standards, apply the threshold that applies for the LEV standards. For cases involving Tier 3 standards that have no corresponding bin standards from the California LEV II program, use the next highest LEV II bin. For example, for Tier 3 Bin 50 standards, apply the threshold that applies for the ULEV standards. You may apply thresholds that are more

      Page 9105

      stringent than we require under this paragraph (a)(8).

      * * * * *

      0

      61. Section 86.1810-01 is amended by revising paragraph (o) and removing paragraph (p) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1810-01 General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe condition; waivers.

      * * * * *

      (o) NMOG determination procedures. Measure NMOG emissions or determine NMOG emissions based on NMHC measurements using the procedures described in 40 CFR 1066.635. For Tier 2 and interim non-

      Tier 2 vehicles fueled by gasoline, manufacturers may instead measure NMHC and multiply the result by an adjustment factor of 1.04 before comparing with the NMOG standard to determine compliance with that standard.

      0

      62. Section 86.1810-17 is amended by revising paragraph (h)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1810-17 General requirements.

      * * * * *

      (h) * * *

      (1) For criteria exhaust emissions, we may identify the worst-case fuel blend for testing in addition to what is required for gasoline-

      fueled vehicles. The worst-case fuel blend may be the fuel specified in 40 CFR 1065.725, or it may consist of a combination of the fuels specified in 40 CFR 1065.710(b) and 1065.725. We may waive testing with the worst-case blended fuel for US06 and/or SC03 duty cycles; if we waive only SC03 testing, substitute the SC03 emission result using the standard test fuel for gasoline-fueled vehicles to calculate composite SFTP emissions.

      * * * * *

      0

      63. Section 86.1811-04 is amended by revising paragraph (j) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1811-04 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-

      duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

      * * * * *

      (j) Highway NOX exhaust emission standard. The NOX emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR 1066.840 must not be greater than 1.33 times the applicable FTP NOX standard to which the manufacturer certifies the test group. Both the measured emissions and the product of the NOX standard and 1.33 must be rounded to the nearest 0.01 g/

      mi before being compared.

      * * * * *

      0

      64. Section 86.1811-17 is amended by:

      0

    31. Revising paragraph (a);

      0

    32. Revising paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(8), (b)(9) introductory text, (b)(10), and (b)(11);

      0

    33. Adding paragraph (b)(14); and

      0

    34. Revising paragraphs (c) and (g).

      The revisions and addition read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1811-17 Exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles.

      (a) Applicability and general provisions. This section describes exhaust emission standards that apply for model year 2017 and later light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. MDPVs are subject to all the same emission standards and certification provisions that apply to LDT4. Some of the provisions of this section also apply to heavy-duty vehicles as specified in Sec. 86.1816. See Sec. 86.1818 for greenhouse gas emission standards. See Sec. 86.1813 for evaporative and refueling emission standards. This section may apply to vehicles from model years earlier than 2017 as specified in paragraph (b)(11) of this section.

      (b) * * *

      (2) Table 1 of this section describes fully phased-in Tier 3 standards that apply as specified in this paragraph (b) for the identified driving schedules. The FTP standards for NMOG+NOX apply on a fleet-average basis using discrete bin standards as described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. The bin standards include additional emission standards for high-altitude testing and for CO emissions when testing over the FTP driving schedule. The SFTP standards for NMOG+NOX apply on a fleet-average basis as described in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Table 1 follows:

      Table 1 of Sec. 86.1811-17--Fully Phased-in Tier 3 Exhaust Emission Standards (g/mile)

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      NMOG+NOX PM CO Formaldehyde

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      FTP \1\ SFTP FTP US06 SFTP FTP

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      0.030 0.050 0.003 0.006 4.2 0.004

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ The fleet-average FTP emission standard for NMOG+NOX is 0.026 g/mile for LDV and LDT1 test groups certified

      to standards based on a useful life of 120,000 miles or 10 years in a given model year.

      * * * * *

      (8) The following provisions describe the primary approach for phasing in the Tier 3 standards other than PM in 2025 and earlier model years:

      (i) FTP phase-in. The fleet-average FTP emission standard for NMOG+NOX phases in over several years as described in this paragraph (b)(8)(i). You must identify FELs as described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section and calculate a fleet-average emission level to show that you meet the FTP emission standard for NMOG+NOX that applies for each model year. For model year 2017, do not include vehicles above 6,000 pounds GVWR. Through model year 2019, you may also certify to transitional Bin 85 or Bin 110 standards, which consist of all-altitude FTP emission standards for NMOG+NOX of 0.085 or 0.110 g/mile, respectively; additional FTP standards for PM, CO, and formaldehyde apply as specified in this section for vehicles certified to Bin 125 standards. Fleet-average FTP emission standards decrease through the phase-in period as shown in the following table:

      Table 3 of Sec. 86.1811-17--Declining Fleet-Average Tier 3 FTP Emission Standards for NMOG+NOX (g/mile)

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      LDV, LDT1-- LDV, LDT1--

      150,000 mile 120,000 mile

      Model year useful life useful life LDT2, HLDT

      \1\ \1\

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      2017 \2\........................................................ 0.086 0.073 0.101

      2018............................................................ 0.079 0.067 0.092

      2019............................................................ 0.072 0.061 0.083

      Page 9106

      2020............................................................ 0.065 0.055 0.074

      2021............................................................ 0.058 0.049 0.065

      2022............................................................ 0.051 0.043 0.056

      2023............................................................ 0.044 0.037 0.047

      2024............................................................ 0.037 0.031 0.038

      2025............................................................ 0.030 0.026 0.030

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ Vehicles certified to standards based on a useful life of 120,000 miles may comply based on the fleet-

      average standard specified for 150,000 mile useful life in certain circumstances as specified in paragraph

      (b)(8)(iii)(A) of this section.

      \2\ HLDT and MDPV must meet the Tier 3 standards starting with model year 2018.

      (ii) SFTP phase-in. The fleet-average SFTP emission standard for NMOG+NOX phases in over several years as described in this paragraph (b)(8)(ii). You must identify FELs as described in paragraph (b)(5) of this section and calculate a fleet-average emission level to show that you meet the SFTP emission standard for NMOG+NOX that applies for each model year.

      (A) Calculate the fleet-average emission level together for all your light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, except for those certified using the provisions of paragraph (b)(8)(ii)(C) of this section. For model year 2017, do not include vehicles above 6,000 pounds GVWR (in the numerator or denominator).

      (B) Fleet-average SFTP emission standards decrease through the phase-in period as shown in the following table:

      Table 4 of Sec. 86.1811-17--Declining Fleet-Average Tier 3 SFTP

      Emission Standards

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      NMOG+NOX (g/

      Model year mile)

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      2017 \1\................................................ 0.103

      2018.................................................... 0.097

      2019.................................................... 0.090

      2020.................................................... 0.083

      2021.................................................... 0.077

      2022.................................................... 0.070

      2023.................................................... 0.063

      2024.................................................... 0.057

      2025.................................................... 0.050

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ HLDT and MDPV must meet the Tier 3 standards starting with model

      year 2018.

      (C) You may use the SFTP stand-alone option specified in 13 CCR 1961.2 (a)(7)(A)1 of the LEV III program to demonstrate compliance with EPA's SFTP standards. Do not include any such test groups when demonstrating compliance with the phased-in fleet-average SFTP standards specified in this paragraph (b)(8)(ii). Note that this option is not available for vehicles certified to the transitional bins described in paragraph (b)(8)(i) of this section.

      (iii) Interim provisions. (A) For vehicles certified to bins higher than Bin 70 under this section through model year 2019, the Tier 2 useful life period applies as specified in Sec. 86.1805-12 for all criteria pollutants other than PM. However, LDV and LDT1 test groups certified to bin standards above Bin 70 through model year 2019 may be included in the same averaging set with vehicles meeting standards over a 150,000 mile useful life, notwithstanding the provisions of Sec. 86.1861-17(b)(1)(iii). Any such vehicles you include in the averaging set for 150,000 mile useful life are also subject to the fleet-average NMOG+NOX standard specified for 150,000 mile useful life; similarly, any such vehicles you include in the averaging set for 120,000 mile useful life are also subject to the fleet-average NMOG+NOX standard specified for 120,000 mile useful life.

      (B) You may use the E0 test fuel specified in Sec. 86.113 through model year 2019 for gasoline-fueled vehicles certified to bins higher than Bin 70. You may not certify these vehicles using carryover data after model year 2019.

      (C) Vehicles must continue to comply with the Tier 2 SFTP emission standards for NMHC+NOX and CO for 4,000-mile testing as specified in Sec. 86.1811-04(f)(1) if they are certified to transitional Bin 85 or Bin 110 standards, or if they are certified based on a fuel without ethanol, or if they are not certified to the Tier 3 p.m. standard.

      (iv) You may use the alternative phase-in provisions described in paragraph (b)(9) of this section to transition to the Tier 3 exhaust emission standards on a different schedule.

      (9) This paragraph (b)(9) describes an alternative approach to phasing in the Tier 3 emission standards for vehicles above 6,000 pounds GVWR. If you choose this approach, you must phase in the Tier 3 standards for all your vehicles above 6,000 pounds GVWR that are subject to this section according to this schedule. Under this alternative phase-in, you must meet the fully phased-in standards specified in this paragraph (b) with 40, 70, and 100 percent of your projected nationwide sales of all vehicles above 6,000 pounds GVWR that are subject to this section in model years 2019 through 2021, respectively. Any vehicles not subject to Tier 3 standards during the phase-in period must continue to comply with the Tier 2 standards in Sec. 86.1811-04(c) and (f), including the Tier 2 SFTP emission standards for NMHC+NOX and CO for 4,000-mile testing as specified in Sec. 86.1811-04(f)(1). Vehicles subject to Tier 2 standards under this paragraph (b)(9) are subject to the useful life provisions in Sec. 86.1805-12 relative to exhaust emission standards. Each vehicle counting toward the phase-in percentage under this paragraph (b)(9) must meet all the standards that apply throughout the useful life as specified in Sec. 86.1805-17, and must use the Tier 3 test fuel specified in Sec. 86.113-15. The following exceptions and special provisions apply under this paragraph (b)(9):

      * * * * *

      (10) You may not use credits generated from Tier 2 vehicles for demonstrating compliance with the Tier 3 standards except as specified in this paragraph (b)(10). You may generate early credits with U.S. sales of Tier 2 vehicles in the two model years before the Tier 3 standards start to apply for a given vehicle model. Vehicles certified to the Tier 2 standards must meet all the Tier 2 requirements in Sec. 86.1811-10, including the fleet-average Tier 2 standards. Calculate early Tier 3 emission credits as described in Sec. 86.1861 by subtracting the appropriate Tier 2 fleet-average value for FTP

      Page 9107

      emissions of NMOG+NOX from 0.160 g/mile. Calculate your fleet-average value for the model year based on vehicles at or below 6,000 pounds GVWR in 2015, on all sizes of vehicles in 2016, and on vehicles above 6,000 pounds GVWR in 2017. You may use these early credits as described in Sec. 86.1861 for demonstrating compliance with the FTP emission standard for NMOG+NOX starting in model year 2017. You may use these early credits interchangeably for vehicles certified based on a useful life of either 120,000 or 150,000 miles. For model years 2018 and later, you may use any remaining early credits for banking or trading subject to a limitation based on credits generated in California, as follows:

      (i) For the applicable model years in which you generate emission credits relative to California's LEV III fleet-average NMOG+NOX standard, determine the actual California sales of light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks and the actual nationwide sales of those same vehicles. (Note: If you have a credit deficit in a given model year for your LEV III vehicles, apply the provisions of this paragraph (b)(10)(i) based on the appropriate negative credit quantity.) In 2015, count sales only from vehicle models at or below 6,000 pounds GVWR. For each model year, multiply the credits generated under the California program by the ratio of nationwide vehicle sales to LEV III vehicle sales to calculate an effective nationwide quantity. Sum these results for model years 2015 through 2017. Note that this calculation results in a maximum credit quantity based on vehicle sales in all states, even though the initial credit calculation does not include vehicle sales in California or the section 177 states. If you comply with the LEV III standards based on pooled emission credits for California and the section 177 states, use those pooled emission credits and corresponding sales for calculating the maximum credit quantity under this paragraph (b)(10)(i).

      (ii) You may not use more early credits generated under this paragraph (b)(10) for banking or trading to demonstrate compliance with Tier 3 emission standards than the calculated value of the effective nationwide credit quantity summed in paragraph (b)(10)(i) of this section. If your generated credits are greater than this threshold, determine the ratio by which your generated early credits exceed the threshold. Calculate an adjusted quantity of early credits generated under this paragraph (b)(10) by dividing the generated credit quantity from each model year by this ratio of generated credits relative to the applicable threshold. This adjusted quantity of credits may be used for banking or trading relative to the Tier 3 standards, subject to the five-year credit life described in Sec. 86.1861.

      (11) You may certify vehicles to the Tier 3 standards starting in model year 2015. To do this, you may either sell all your LEV III vehicle models nationwide, or you may certify a subset of your fleet to alternate fleet-average emission standards as follows:

      (i) The alternate fleet-average FTP emission standards for NMOG+NOX are 0.100 g/mile in 2015 and 0.093 g/mile in 2016 for LDV and LDT1.

      (ii) The alternate fleet-average FTP emission standards for NMOG+NOX are 0.119 g/mile in 2015, 0.110 g/mile in 2016, and 0.101 g/mile in 2017 for LDT2 and HLDT.

      (iii) The alternate fleet-average SFTP emission standards for NMOG+NOX are 0.140 in 2015 for all vehicles, 0.110 in 2016 for all vehicles, and 0.103 in 2017 for LDT2 and HLDT.

      (iv) The vehicles must meet FTP and SFTP standards for PM as specified in Sec. 86.1811-04. The PM testing provisions of Sec. 86.1829-01(b)(1)(iii)(B) apply for these vehicles.

      (v) Vehicles not certified to the Tier 3 standards in a given model year must meet all the requirements that apply for Tier 2 vehicles in that model year.

      (vi) For cold temperature testing and for high-altitude testing, you may use the E0 fuel specified in Sec. 86.113-04(a) or Sec. 86.213 instead of the E10 test fuel specified in Sec. 86.113-15.

      (vii) Vehicles certified under this paragraph (b)(11) to a bin standard at or below Bin 70 must be certified to a useful life of 150,000 miles.

      (viii) The interim provisions described in paragraph (b)(8)(iii) of this section apply for vehicles certified under this paragraph (b)(11), except that credits generated under this paragraph (b)(11) may be used interchangeably for vehicles certified based on a useful life of either 120,000 or 150,000 miles.

      (ix) For vehicles certified under this paragraph (b)(11), you may generate emission credits and use those credits for demonstrating compliance with Tier 3 standards as described in paragraph (b)(10) of this section or as described in Sec. 86.1861.

      * * * * *

      (14) This subpart describes several ways that the transition to Final Tier 3 standards applies differently for vehicles above and below 6,000 pounds GVWR. All these distinctions apply only for LDT. LDV as a category is defined independent of GVWR, so any LDV above 6,000 pounds GVWR are subject to the same provisions that apply for LDV at or below 6,000 pounds GVWR. Where this section refers to ``vehicles above 6,000 pounds GVWR,'' this should be understood to include LDT above 6,000 pounds GVWR and MDPV (or HLDT and MDPV), and to exclude all LDV.

      (c) Highway NMOG+NOX exhaust emission standard. NMOG+NOX emissions measured on the federal Highway Fuel Economy Test in 40 CFR 1066.840 may not exceed the applicable FTP bin standard for NMOG+NOX. Demonstrate compliance with this standard for low-

      mileage vehicles by applying the appropriate deterioration factor. For vehicles not certified to any Tier 3 emission standards specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the provisions of Sec. 86.1811-04(j) apply instead of this paragraph (c).

      * * * * *

      (g) Cold temperature exhaust emission standards. The standards in this paragraph (g) apply for certification and in-use vehicles tested over the test procedures specified in subpart C of this part, for testing at both low-altitude conditions and high-altitude conditions. These standards apply only to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Multi-fuel, bi-

      fuel or dual-fuel vehicles must comply with requirements using gasoline only. Testing with other fuels such as a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend, or testing on diesel vehicles, is not required.

      (1) Cold temperature CO standards. Cold temperature CO exhaust emission standards apply as follows:

      (i) For LDV and LDT1, the standard is 10.0 g/mile CO.

      (ii) For LDT2, LDT3 and LDT4, the standard is 12.5 grams per mile CO.

      (2) Cold temperature NMHC standards. The following fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards apply as follows:

      * * * * *

      0

      65. Section 86.1813-17 is amended by revising paragraphs (a)(1)(iv) and (a)(2)(i) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1813-17 Evaporative and refueling emission standards.

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (1) * * *

      (iv) Emissions are generally measured with a flame ionization detector (FID). In the case of rig, diurnal, hot soak, and running loss testing with E10 test fuel, multiply measured (unspeciated) FID values by 1.08 to account for the FID's reduced response to ethanol. However, you may instead determine total hydrocarbon equivalent for E10 testing

      Page 9108

      based on speciated measurements as described in Sec. 86.143-96(c). You may use different methods (with or without speciation) for different test elements for a given test vehicle; however, you must always use the same method for diurnal and hot soak testing. In addition, any later testing with vehicles from that evaporative/refueling family must use the same method that was used for the original testing. Similarly, any evaporative/refueling families certified in later model years using carryover data must use the same method that was used for the original testing. We may do testing with or without speciation, but we will apply the 1.08 correction factor to unspeciated measurements for any of these four categories of evaporative emissions only if you also use it to determine your final test results.

      (2) * * *

      (i) The emission standard for the sum of diurnal and hot soak measurements from the two-diurnal test sequence and the three-diurnal test sequence is based on a fleet average in a given model year. You must specify a family emission limit (FEL) for each evaporative family. The FEL serves as the emission standard for the evaporative family with respect to all required diurnal and hot soak testing. Calculate your fleet-average emission level as described in Sec. 86.1860 based on the FEL that applies for low-altitude testing to show that you meet the specified standard. For multi-fueled vehicles, calculate fleet-average emission levels based only on emission levels for testing with gasoline. You may generate emission credits for banking and trading and you may use banked or traded credits for demonstrating compliance with the diurnal plus hot soak emission standard for vehicles required to meet the Tier 3 standards, other than electric vehicles and gaseous-

      fueled vehicles, as described in Sec. 86.1861 starting in model year 2017. You comply with the emission standard for a given model year if you have enough credits to show that your fleet-average emission level is at or below the applicable standard. You may exchange credits between or among evaporative families within an averaging set as described in Sec. 86.1861. Separate diurnal plus hot soak emission standards apply for each evaporative/refueling emission family as shown for high-altitude conditions. The sum of diurnal and hot soak measurements may not exceed the following Tier 3 standards:

      Table 1 of Sec. 86.1813-17--Tier 3 Diurnal Plus Hot Soak Emission

      Standards

      grams per test

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Low-altitude

      Vehicle category conditions--fleet- High-altitude

      average conditions

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      LDV, LDT1........................... 0.300 0.65

      LDT2................................ 0.400 0.85

      HLDT................................ 0.500 \1\ 1.15

      HDV................................. 0.600 1.75

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ 1.25 g/test for MDPVs.

      * * * * *

      0

      66. Section 86.1816-18 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(C), (b)(8) introductory text, (b)(12)(iii), and (c) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1816-18 Emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (1) * * *

      (ii) * * *

      (C) For Class 3 vehicles, the Hot LA-92 driving schedule as specified in paragraph (c) of Appendix I of this part.

      * * * * *

      (8) This paragraph (b)(8) describes an alternative approach to phasing in the Tier 3 emission standards. If you choose this approach, you must phase in the Tier 3 standards for all your vehicles subject to this section according to this schedule. Under this alternative phase in, you must meet all the standards specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section according to the phase-in schedule specified in Table 6 of this section based on the indicated percentage of your projected nationwide sales in each model year. These vehicles must meet the applicable FTP emission standard for CO and the HD-SFTP emission standards for NMOG+NOX and CO that apply for Class 2b Bin 170 and Class 3 Bin 230 as described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. Any vehicles not subject to Tier 3 standards during the phase-

      in period must continue to comply with the gaseous exhaust emission standards in Sec. 86.1816-08. Each vehicle counting toward the PM phase-in percentage under this paragraph (b)(8) in model years 2019 and 2020 must also be included in the portion of the fleet meeting the Tier 3 standards for pollutants other than PM. Each vehicle counting toward the phase-in percentage for any pollutant must use the Tier 3 test fuel specified in Sec. 86.113-15. The following exceptions and special provisions apply under this paragraph (b)(8):

      * * * * *

      (12) * * *

      (iii) Alternate in-use FTP and HD-SFTP standards for NMOG+NOX apply as specified in the following table:

      Table 7 of Sec. 86.1816-18--Alternate In-use NMOG+NOX Standards

      g/mile

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      HD-SFTP

      Class FEL name FTP \1\

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      2b............................. Bin 250.......... 0.370 1.120

      Bin 200........................ 0.300............ 1.120 .........

      Bin 170........................ 0.250............ 0.630 .........

      Bin 150........................ 0.220............ 0.630 .........

      3.............................. Bin 400.......... 0.600 0.770

      Bin 270........................ 0.400............ 0.770 .........

      Bin 230........................ 0.340............ 0.490 .........

      Bin 200........................ 0.300............ 0.490 .........

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ For Class 2b vehicles with a power-to-weight ratio at or below 0.024

      hp/pound that are certified to optional standards under paragraphs

      (b)(2) and (4) of this section, the following alternate in-use HD-SFTP

      standards for NMOG+NOX apply instead of those identified in the table:

      0.490 g/mile for Bin 150 and Bin 170; and 0.770 g/mile for Bin 200 and

      Bin 250. Note that vehicles certified to transitional Tier 3 FTP bins

      are not subject to HD-SFTP standards.

      * * * * *

      (c) Highway NMOG+NOX exhaust emission standard. For vehicles certified to any of the Tier 3 standards specified in paragraph (b) of this section, NMOG+NOX emissions measured on the highway test cycle in 40 CFR 1066.840 may not exceed the applicable NMOG+NOX bin standard for FTP testing. Demonstrate compliance with this standard for low-mileage vehicles by applying the appropriate deterioration factor.

      * * * * *

      0

      67. Section 86.1829-15 is amended by:

      0

    35. Revising paragraphs (b)(2) and (d)(1);

      0

    36. Adding paragraph (d)(6); and

      0

    37. Revising paragraph (e)(9).

      The revisions and addition read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1829-15 Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (2) Test one EDV in each test group using the FTP, SFTP, and HFET test procedures in 40 CFR part 1066 to

      Page 9109

      demonstrate compliance with other exhaust emission standards.

      * * * * *

      (d) * * *

      (1) For vehicles subject to the Tier 3 PM standards in Sec. 86.1811, a manufacturer may provide a statement in the application for certification that vehicles comply with applicable PM standards instead of submitting PM test data for a certain number of vehicles. However, each manufacturer must test vehicles from a minimum number of durability groups as follows:

      (i) Manufacturers with a single durability group subject to the Tier 3 PM standards in Sec. 86.1811 must submit PM test data for that group.

      (ii) Manufacturers with two to eight durability groups subject to the Tier 3 PM standards in Sec. 86.1811 must submit PM test data for at least two durability groups each model year. EPA will work with the manufacturer to select durability groups for testing, with the general expectation that testing will rotate to cover a manufacturer's whole product line over time. If a durability group has been certified in an earlier model year based on submitted PM data, and that durability group is eligible for certification using carryover test data, that carryover data may count toward meeting the requirements of this paragraph (d)(1), subject to the selection of durability groups.

      (iii) Manufacturers with nine or more durability groups subject to the Tier 3 PM standards in Sec. 86.1811 must submit PM test data for at least 25 percent of those durability groups each model year. We will work with the manufacturer to select durability groups for testing as described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section.

      * * * * *

      (6) For model years 2012 through 2016, a manufacturer may provide a statement in its application for certification that vehicles comply with the applicable standards instead of measuring N2O emissions. Such a statement may also be used for model year 2017 and 2018 vehicles only if the application for certification for those vehicles is based upon data carried over from a prior model year, as allowed under this subpart. No model year 2019 and later vehicles may be waived from testing for N2O emissions. Vehicles certified to N2O standards using a compliance statement instead of submitting test data are not required to collect and submit N2O emission data under the in-use testing requirements of Sec. 86.1845.

      (e) * * *

      (9) For complete vehicles above 10,000 pounds GVWR with fuel tanks exceeding 35 gallons nominal fuel tank capacity, and for any incomplete vehicles above 10,000 pounds GVWR, a manufacturer may provide a statement in the application for certification that vehicles comply with refueling emission standards instead of submitting test data, consistent with 40 CFR 1037.103(c).

      * * * * *

      0

      68. Section 86.1844-01 is amended by revising paragraphs (d)(3) and (d)(7)(i) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1844-01 Information requirements: Application for certification and submittal of information upon request.

      * * * * *

      (d) * * *

      (3) A description of applicable evaporative/refueling families and leak families in accordance with the criteria listed in Sec. 86.1821-

      01, or as otherwise used to group a product line.

      * * * * *

      (7) * * *

      (i) For vehicles certified to any Tier 3 emission standards, include a comparison of drive-cycle metrics as specified in 40 CFR 1066.425(j) for each drive cycle or test phase, as appropriate.

      * * * * *

      0

      69. Section 86.1845-04 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(5), (c)(5), and (f)(2) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1845-04 Manufacturer in-use verification testing requirements.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (5) Testing. (i) Each test vehicle of a test group shall be tested in accordance with the FTP and the US06 portion of the SFTP as described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable exhaust emission standards under this subpart. Test vehicles subject to applicable exhaust CO2 emission standards under this subpart shall also be tested in accordance with the HFET as described in 40 CFR 1066.840.

      (ii) For vehicles subject to Tier 3 p.m. standards, manufacturers must measure PM emissions over the FTP and US06 driving schedules for at least 50 percent of the vehicles tested under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section.

      (iii) Starting with model year 2018 vehicles, manufacturers must demonstrate compliance with the Tier 3 leak standard specified in Sec. 86.1813, if applicable, as described in this paragraph (b)(5)(iii). Manufacturers must evaluate each vehicle tested under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section, except that leak testing is not required for vehicles tested under paragraph (b)(5)(iv) of this section for diurnal emissions. In addition, manufacturers must evaluate at least one vehicle from each leak family for a given model year. Manufacturers may rely on OBD monitoring instead of testing as follows:

      (A) A vehicle is considered to pass the leak test if the OBD system completed a leak check within the previous 750 miles of driving without showing a leak fault code.

      (B) Whether or not a vehicle's OBD system has completed a leak check within the previous 750 miles of driving, the manufacturer may operate the vehicle as needed to force the OBD system to perform a leak check. If the OBD leak check does not show a leak fault, the vehicle is considered to pass the leak test.

      (C) If the most recent OBD leak check from paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(A) or (B) of this section shows a leak-related fault code as specified in Sec. 86.1806-17(b), the vehicle is presumed to have failed the leak test. Manufacturers may perform the leak measurement procedure described in 40 CFR 1066.985 for an official result to replace the finding from the OBD leak check.

      (D) Manufacturers may not perform repeat OBD checks or leak measurements to over-ride a failure under paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(C) of this section.

      (iv) For nongaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the supplemental 2-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission and refueling emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. For gaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the 3-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission and refueling emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. The test vehicles tested to fulfill the evaporative/refueling testing requirement of this paragraph (b)(5)(iv) will be counted when determining compliance with the minimum number of vehicles as specified in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for testing under paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section only if the vehicle is also tested for exhaust emissions under the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section.

      * * * * *

      Page 9110

      (c) * * *

      (5) Testing. (i) Each test vehicle shall be tested in accordance with the FTP and the US06 portion of the SFTP as described in subpart B of this part when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable exhaust emission standards under this subpart. Test vehicles subject to applicable exhaust CO2 emission standards under this subpart shall also be tested in accordance with the HFET as described in 40 CFR 1066.840. One test vehicle from each test group shall be tested over the FTP at high altitude. The test vehicle tested at high altitude is not required to be one of the same test vehicles tested at low altitude. The test vehicle tested at high altitude is counted when determining the compliance with the requirements shown in Table S04-06 and Table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section or the expanded sample size as provided for in this paragraph (c).

      (ii) For vehicles subject to Tier 3 p.m. standards, manufacturers must measure PM emissions over the FTP and US06 driving schedules for at least 50 percent of the vehicles tested under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section.

      (iii) Starting with model year 2018 vehicles, manufacturers must evaluate each vehicle tested under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section to demonstrate compliance with the Tier 3 leak standard specified in Sec. 86.1813, except that leak testing is not required for vehicles tested under paragraph (c)(5)(iv) of this section for diurnal emissions. In addition, manufacturers must evaluate at least one vehicle from each leak family for a given model year. Manufacturers may rely on OBD monitoring instead of testing as described in paragraph (b)(5)(iii) of this section.

      (iv) For nongaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the supplemental 2-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. For gaseous-fueled vehicles, one test vehicle of each evaporative/refueling family shall be tested in accordance with the 3-diurnal-plus-hot-soak evaporative emission procedures described in subpart B of this part, when such test vehicle is tested for compliance with applicable evaporative emission and refueling standards under this subpart. The vehicles tested to fulfill the evaporative/refueling testing requirement of this paragraph (c)(5)(iv) will be counted when determining compliance with the minimum number of vehicles as specified in Table S04-06 and table S04-07 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for testing under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section only if the vehicle is also tested for exhaust emissions under the requirements of paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section.

      * * * * *

      (f) * * *

      (2) For flexible-fueled vehicles certified to NMOG (or NMOG+NOX) standards, the manufacturer may ask for EPA approval to demonstrate compliance using an equivalent NMOG emission result calculated from a ratio of ethanol NMOG exhaust emissions to gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions. Ethanol NMOG exhaust emissions are measured values from testing with the ethanol test fuel, expressed as NMOG. Gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions are measured values from testing with the gasoline test fuel, expressed as NMHC. This ratio must be established during certification for each emission-data vehicle for the applicable test group. Use good engineering judgment to establish a different ratio for each duty cycle or test interval as appropriate. Identify the ratio values you develop under this paragraph (f)(2) and describe the duty cycle or test interval to which they apply in the Part II application for certification. Calculate the equivalent NMOG emission result by multiplying the measured gasoline NMHC exhaust emissions for a given duty cycle or test interval by the appropriate ratio.

      * * * * *

      0

      70. Section 86.1846-01 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1846-01 Manufacturer in-use confirmatory testing requirements.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (1) * * *

      (i) Additional testing is not required under this paragraph (b)(1) based on Supplemental FTP testing or evaporative/refueling testing. Testing conducted at high altitude under the requirements of Sec. 86.1845-04(c) will be included in determining if a test group meets the criteria triggering the testing required under this section.

      (ii) The vehicle designated for testing under the requirements of Sec. 86.1845-04(c)(2) with a minimum odometer reading of 105,000 miles or 75% of useful life, whichever is less, will not be included in determining if a test group meets the triggering criteria.

      * * * * *

      0

      71. Section 86.1861-17 is amended by revising paragraphs (a) and (b)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 86.1861-17 How do the NMOG+NOX and evaporative emission credit programs work?

      * * * * *

      (a) Calculate emission credits as described in this paragraph (a) instead of using the provisions of 40 CFR 1037.705. Calculate positive or negative emission credits relative to the applicable fleet-average standard. Calculate positive emission credits if your fleet-average level is below the standard. Calculate negative emission credits if your fleet-average value is above the standard. Calculate credits separately for each type of standard and for each averaging set. Calculate emission credits using the following equation, rounded to the nearest whole number:

      Emission credit=Volume middot Fleet average standard-Fleet average value

      Where:

      Emission credit = The positive or negative credit for each discrete fleet-average standard, in units of vehicle-grams per mile for NMOG+NOX and vehicle-grams per test for evaporative emissions.

      Volume = Sales volume in a given model year from the collection of test groups or evaporative families covered by the fleet-average value, as described in Sec. 86.1860.

      (b) * * *

      (1) Except as specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, emission credits may be exchanged only within an averaging set, as follows:

      (i) HDV represent a separate averaging set with respect to all emission standards.

      (ii) Except as specified in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, LDV and LDT represent a single averaging set with respect to all emission standards. Note that FTP and SFTP credits are not interchangeable.

      (iii) LDV and LDT1 certified to standards based on a useful life of 120,000 miles and 10 years together represent a single averaging set with respect to NMOG+NOX emission standards. Note that FTP and SFTP credits are not interchangeable.

      (iv) The following separate averaging sets apply for evaporative emission standards:

      (A) LDV and LDT1 together represent a single averaging set.

      (B) LDT2 represents a single averaging set.

      (C) HLDT represents a single averaging set.

      (D) HDV represents a single averaging set.

      * * * * *

      Page 9111

      0

      72. Appendix I to part 86 is amended by revising paragraph (c) introductory text to read as follows:

      Appendix I to Part 86--Dynamometer Schedules

      * * * * *

      (c) EPA driving schedule for class 3 heavy-duty vehicles. This driving schedule is also known as the LA-92 cycle. The first 1,435 seconds are the Hot LA-92 driving schedule.

      * * * * *

      PART 600--FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES

      0

      73. The authority citation for part 600 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 49 U.S.C. 32901-23919q, Pub. L. 109-58.

      Subpart B--Amended

      0

      74. Section 600.116-12 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(5) to read as follows:

      Sec. 600.116-12 Special procedures related to electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (5) The End-of-Test criterion is based on a 1 percent Net Energy Change as specified in Section 3.8 of SAE J1711. We may approve alternate Net Energy Change tolerances as specified in Section 3.9.1 of SAE J1711 for charge-depleting tests or Appendix C of SAE J1711 for charge-sustaining tests if the 1 percent threshold is insufficient or inappropriate. For charge-sustaining tests, we may approve the use of alternate Net Energy Change tolerances as specified in Appendix C of SAE J1711 to correct final fuel economy values, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For charge-sustaining tests, do not use alternate Net Energy Change tolerances to correct emissions of criteria pollutants. Additionally, if we approve an alternate End-of-Test criterion or Net Energy Change tolerances for a specific vehicle, we may use the alternate criterion or tolerances for any testing we conduct on that vehicle.

      * * * * *

      0

      75. Section 600.117 is amended by revising paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) to read as follows:

      Sec. 600.117 Interim provisions.

      * * * * *

      (a) Except as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, manufacturers must demonstrate compliance with greenhouse gas emission standards and determine fuel economy values using E0 gasoline test fuel as specified in 40 CFR 86.113-04(a)(1), regardless of any testing with Tier 3 test fuel under paragraph (b) of this section.

      (b) Manufacturers may demonstrate that vehicles comply with Tier 3 emission standards as specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, during fuel economy measurements using the E0 gasoline test fuel specified in 40 CFR 86.113-04(a)(1), as long as this test fuel is used in fuel economy testing for all applicable duty cycles specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S. If a vehicle fails to meet a Tier 3 emission standard using the E0 gasoline test fuel specified in 40 CFR 86.113-04(a)(1), the manufacturer must retest the vehicle using the Tier 3 test fuel specified in 40 CFR 1065.710(b) (or the equivalent LEV III test fuel for California) to demonstrate compliance with all applicable emission standards over that test cycle.

      (c) If a manufacturer demonstrates compliance with emission standards for criteria pollutants over all five test cycles using the Tier 3 test fuel specified in 40 CFR 1065.710(b) (or the equivalent LEV III test fuel for California), the manufacturer may use test data with the same test fuel to determine whether a test group meets the criteria described in Sec. 600.115 for derived 5-cycle testing for fuel economy labeling. Such vehicles may be tested over the FTP and HFET cycles with the E0 gasoline test fuel specified in 40 CFR 86.113-04(a)(1) under this paragraph (c); the vehicles must meet the Tier 3 emission standards over those test cycles as described in paragraph (b) of this section.

      (d) Manufacturers may perform testing with the appropriate gasoline test fuels specified in 40 CFR 86.113-04(a)(1), 40 CFR 86.213(a)(2), and in 40 CFR 1065.710(b) to evaluate whether their vehicles meet the criteria for derived 5-cycle testing under 40 CFR 600.115. All five tests must use test fuel with the same nominal ethanol concentration.

      * * * * *

      PART 1037--CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES

      0

      76. The authority citation for part 1037 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      Subpart B--Emission Standards and Related Requirements

      0

      77. Section 1037.103 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(6) and (f) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1037.103 Evaporative and refueling emission standards.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (6) Vehicles not yet subject to the Tier 3 standards in 40 CFR 86.1813 must meet evaporative emission standards as specified in Sec. Sec. 86.008-10(b)(1) and (2) for Otto-cycle applications and 86.007-11(b)(3)(ii) and (b)(4)(ii) for diesel-cycle applications.

      * * * * *

      (f) Useful life. Your vehicles must meet the evaporative emission standards of this section throughout their useful life, expressed in service miles or calendar years, whichever comes first. The useful life values for the standards of this section are described in 40 CFR 86.1805.

      * * * * *

      0

      78. Section 1037.104 is amended by revising paragraph (e) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1037.104 Exhaust emission standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR.

      * * * * *

      (e) Useful life. Your vehicles must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section throughout their full useful life, expressed in service miles or calendar years, whichever comes first. The useful life values for the standards of this section are those that apply to model year 2014 vehicles for criteria pollutants under 40 CFR part 86.1805-12.

      * * * * *

      0

      79. Section 1037.135 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(9) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1037.135 Labeling.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (9) If you rely on another company to design and install fuel tanks in incomplete vehicles that use an evaporative canister for controlling diurnal emissions, include the following statement: ``THIS VEHICLE IS DESIGNED TO COMPLY WITH EVAPORATIVE EMISSION STANDARDS WITH UP TO x GALLONS OF FUEL TANK CAPACITY.'' Complete this statement by identifying the maximum specified fuel tank capacity associated with your certification.

      * * * * *

      PART 1043--CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL

      0

      80. The authority citation for part 1043 is revised to read as follows:

      Page 9112

      Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1901-1912.

      Sec. 1043.5 Amended

      0

      81. Section 1043.5 is amended by removing and reserving paragraph (b).

      0

      82. Section 1043.10 is amended by revising paragraphs (a)(2) introductory text, (a)(2)(iii), and (b)(2) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.10 Applicability.

      (a) * * *

      (2) Vessels that operate only domestically and conform to the requirements of this paragraph (a)(2) are excluded from Regulation 13 of Annex VI and the NOX-related requirements of this part (including the requirement to obtain an EIAPP certificate and to keep a Technical File and an Engine Book of Record Parameters). For the purpose of this exclusion, the phrase ``operate only domestically'' means the vessels do not enter waters subject to the jurisdiction or control of any foreign country, except for Canadian portions of the Great Lakes. (See Sec. Sec. 1043.60 and 1043.70 for provisions related to fuel use by such vessels). To be excluded, the vessel must conform to each of the following provisions:

      * * * * *

      (iii) Any engine installed in the vessel that is not covered by an EIAPP certificate must be labeled as specified in 40 CFR 1042.135 with respect to whether it meets the requirements of Regulation 13 of Annex VI.

      (b) * * *

      (2) For non-public vessels flagged by a country that is not a party to Annex VI, the requirements of this part apply in the same manner as apply for Party vessels, except as otherwise provided in this part. For example, see Sec. 1043.30(c)(4) for provisions related to showing compliance with this requirement without an EIAPP certificate. See Sec. 1043.60 for specific operating requirements.

      * * * * *

      0

      83. Section 1043.20 is amended by revising the definitions for ``2008 Annex VI'', ``Emission control area (ECA)'', and ``Public vessels'' to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.20 Definitions.

      * * * * *

      2008 Annex VI means Annex VI to the MARPOL Protocol, including the amendments from Annex 12, adopted through April 2014 (incorporated by reference in Sec. 1043.100). This version of Annex VI does not include any amendments that may be adopted in the future. This 2008 version applies for certain provisions of this part such as those applicable for internal waters and for non-Party vessels.

      * * * * *

      Emission control area (ECA) means an area designated pursuant to Annex VI as an Emission Control Area that is in force.

      * * * * *

      Public vessels means warships, naval auxiliary vessels, and other vessels owned or operated by a sovereign country when engaged in noncommercial service. Vessels with a national security exemption under 40 CFR 80.606 or 1042.635 are deemed to be public vessels.

      * * * * *

      0

      84. Section 1043.40 is amended by redesignating paragraphs (d) through (f) as paragraphs (e) through (g), adding a new paragraph (d), and revising the newly redesignated paragraph (g) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.40 EIAPP certificates.

      * * * * *

      (d) EPA may issue both an EPA certificate and an EIAPP certificate for the same engine, as long as the manufacturer and the engine meet all applicable requirements. EPA may not issue an EIAPP certificate if the engine is certified with an FEL under 40 CFR part 1042 that is higher than the applicable NOX emission standard under Annex VI.

      * * * * *

      (g) This paragraph (g) applies for engines that were originally excluded from this part because they were intended for domestic use and were introduced into U.S. commerce without an EIAPP certificate. Note that such engines must be labeled as specified under 40 CFR 1042.135 to indicate that they are intended for domestic use. Such engines may be installed on vessels not intended only for domestic operation provided the engine manufacturer, vessel manufacturer, or vessel owner obtains an EIAPP certificate. Similarly, vessels originally intended only for domestic operation may be used internationally provided the engine manufacturer, vessel manufacturer, or vessel owner obtains an EIAPP certificate. The limitations for engine manufacturers described in paragraphs (a) and (d) of this section also apply for all EIAPP certificates issued under this paragraph (g). In either case, the Technical File must specify that the engine was originally certified for domestic use only, prior to being covered by an EIAPP certificate. Engine manufacturers may provide a supplemental label to clarify that the engine is no longer limited to domestic service. An engine manufacturer, vessel manufacturer, or vessel owner may also ask to apply the provisions of this paragraph (g) to engines originally certified for public vessels.

      0

      85. Section 1043.60 is amended by revising paragraphs (a) and (b) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.60 Operating requirements for engines and vessels subject to this part.

      * * * * *

      (a) Except as specified otherwise in this part, NOX emission limits apply to all vessels subject to this part as specified in the following table:

      Table 1 to Sec. 1043.60 Annex VI NOX Emission Standards (g/kW-hr)

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Maximum in-use engine speed

      Area of Implementation date -----------------------------------------------

      Tier applicability \a\ Less than 130 130-2000 RPM

      RPM \b\ Over 2000 RPM

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Tier I............... All U.S. navigable January 1, 2004- 17.0 45.0 middot 9.8

      waters and EEZ. December 31, 2010. n (-0.20)

      Tier II.............. All U.S. navigable January 1, 2011- 14.4 44.0 middot 7.7

      waters and EEZ. December 31, 2015. n (-0.23)

      Tier II.............. All U.S. navigable January 1, 2016 and 14.4 44.0 middot 7.7

      waters and EEZ, later. n (-0.23)

      exluding ECA and

      ECA associated

      areas.

      Tier III............. ECA and ECA January 1, 2016 and 3.4 9.0 middot n 2.0

      associated areas. later c. (-0.20)

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \a\ Standards apply for engines installed on vessels with a build date in the specified time frame, or for

      engines that undergo a major conversion in the specified time frame.

      Page 9113

      \b\ Applicable standards are calculated from n (maximum in-use engine speed, in RPM, as specified in Sec.

      1042.140). Round the standards to one decimal place.

      \c\ In the case of recreational vessels of less than 500 gross tonnage with length at or above 24 meters, the

      Tier III standards start to apply January 1, 2021.

      (b) Except as specified otherwise in this part, fuel sulfur limits apply to all vessels subject to this part as specified in the following table:

      Table 2 to Sec. 1043.60 Annex VI Fuel Sulfur Limits (wt %) \a\

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Sulfur limit in Sulfur limit in

      all U.S. ECA and ECA

      Calendar years navigable waters associated areas

      and EEZ (percent) (percent)

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      2010-2011......................... 4.50 1.00

      2012-2014......................... 3.50 1.00

      2015-2019......................... 3.50 0.10

      2020 and later.................... 0.50 0.10

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \a\ Note that Regulation 3 and Regulation 4 of Annex VI allow for the

      use of noncompliant fuel in certain circumstances.

      * * * * *

      0

      86. Section 1043.70 is amended by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.70 General recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

      (a) Under APPS, owners and operators of Party vessels must keep records related to NOX standards and in-use fuel specifications such as the Technical File, the Engine Book of Record Parameters, and bunker delivery notes. Owners and operators of non-

      Party vessels must keep these records as specified in the NOX Technical Code and Regulations 13, 14, and 18 of 2008 Annex VI (incorporated by reference in Sec. 1043.100). We may inspect these records as allowed by APPS. As part of our inspection, we may require that the owner submit copies of these records to us.

      * * * * *

      0

      87. Section 1043.80 is amended by revising paragraph (b)(9) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.80 Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for fuel suppliers.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (9) A signed statement by an authorized representative of the fuel supplier certifying that the fuel supplied conforms to Regulations 14 and 18 of Annex VI consistent with its designation, intended use, and the date on which it is to be used. For example, with respect to conformity to Regulation 14 of Annex VI, a fuel designated and intended for use in an ECA any time on or after January 1, 2015 may not have a sulfur content above 0.10 weight percent. This statement is not required if the vessel is not subject to fuel standards of Regulation 14 of Annex VI. The statement described in this paragraph (b)(9) is deemed to be a submission to EPA.

      * * * * *

      0

      88. Section 1043.95 is amended by revising the section heading, the introductory text, and paragraph (b)(1)(ii) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.95 Great Lakes provisions.

      The provisions of this section apply for vessels operating exclusively in the Great Lakes.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (1) * * *

      (ii) We may approve the use of an engine meeting less stringent standards if the owner can demonstrate that it took possession of the engine before October 30, 2009, and that engine is a new engine that has not been installed in a non-marine application. Such an engine must at a minimum be certified to the Annex VI NOX emission standard referenced in Sec. 1043.60 that applies based on its build date.

      * * * * *

      0

      89. Add Sec. 1043.97 to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.97 Interim provisions.

      (a) The fuel-related requirements under APPS for operation in the North American ECA, the United States Caribbean Sea ECA, and ECA-

      associated areas do not apply until January 1, 2020 for steamships built on or before August 1, 2011 if they are powered by propulsion boilers that were not originally designed for continued operation on marine distillate fuel or natural gas.

      (b) Reserved

      0

      90. Section 1043.100 is amended by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1043.100 Reference materials.

      * * * * *

      (a) IMO material. This paragraph (a) lists material from the International Maritime Organization that we have incorporated by reference. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the International Maritime Organization, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, or www.imo.org, or 44-(0)20-7735-7611.

      (1) MARPOL Annex VI, Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships, Third Edition, 2013, and NOX Technical Code 2008.

      (i) Revised MARPOL Annex VI, Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, Third Edition, 2013 (``2008 Annex VI''); IBR approved for Sec. 1043.1 introductory text, 1043.20, 1043.30(f), 1043.60(c), and 1043.70(a).

      (ii) NOX Technical Code 2008, Technical Code on Control of Emission of Nitrogen Oxides from Marine Diesel Engines, 2013 Edition, (``NOX Technical Code''); IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 1043.20, 1043.41(b) and (h), and 1043.70(a).

      (iii) Annex 12, Resolution MEPC.251(66) from the Report of the Marine Environment Protection Committee on its Sixty-Sixth Sesson, April 25, 2014. This document describes new and revised provisions that are considered to be part of Annex VI and NOX Technical Code 2008 as referenced in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section. IBR approved for Sec. 1043.1 introductory text, 1043.20, 1043.30(f), 1043.41(b) and (h), 1043.60(c), and 1043.70(a).

      (2) Reserved

      * * * * *

      PART 1051--CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES

      0

      91. The authority citation for part 1051 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      Page 9114

      Subpart F--Test Procedures

      0

      92. Section 1051.501 is amended by revising paragraph (b) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1051.501 What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines?

      * * * * *

      (b) Motorcycles and ATVs. For motorcycles and ATVs, use the equipment, procedures, and duty cycle in 40 CFR part 86, subpart F, to determine whether your vehicles meet the exhaust emission standards in Sec. 1051.105 or Sec. 1051.107. Measure the emissions of all the pollutants we regulate in Sec. 1051.105 or Sec. 1051.107. Measure CO2, N2O, and CH4 as described in Sec. 1051.235. If we allow you to certify ATVs based on engine testing, use the equipment, procedures, and duty cycle described or referenced in the section that allows engine testing. For motorcycles with engine displacement at or below 169 cc and all ATVs, use the driving schedule in paragraph (b) of appendix I to 40 CFR part 86. For all other motorcycles, use the driving schedule in paragraph (a) of Appendix I to part 86. With respect to vehicle-speed governors, test motorcycles and ATVs in their ungoverned configuration, unless we approve in advance testing in a governed configuration. We will only approve testing in a governed configuration if you can show that the governor is permanently installed on all production vehicles and is unlikely to be removed in use. With respect to engine-speed governors, test motorcycles and ATVs in their governed configuration. Run the test engine, with all emission-control systems operating, long enough to stabilize emission levels; you may consider emission levels stable without measurement if you accumulate 12 hours of operation.

      * * * * *

      PART 1054--CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-

      IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT

      0

      93. The authority citation for part 1054 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      Subpart B--Emission Standards and Related Requirements

      0

      94. Section 1054.135 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(8) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1054.135 How must I label and identify the engines I produce?

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (8) Include one of the following statements:

      (i) If you are an integrated equipment manufacturer certifying engines with respect to exhaust emissions and meeting all applicable evaporative emission requirements under 40 CFR part 1060, state--

      ``THIS ENGINE MEETS U.S. EPA EXH/EVP REGS FOR MODEL YEAR.''

      (ii) In all other cases, state--

      ``THIS ENGINE MEETS U.S. EPA EXH REGS FOR MODEL YEAR.''

      * * * * *

      0

      95. Section 1054.145 is amended by revising paragraph (n) introductory text and removing paragraph (o) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1054.145 Are there interim provisions that apply only for a limited time?

      * * * * *

      (n) California test fuel. You may perform testing with a fuel meeting the requirements for certifying the engine in California instead of the fuel specified in Sec. 1054.501(b)(2), as follows:

      * * * * *

      Subpart F--Test Procedures

      0

      96. Section 1054.501 is amended by revising paragraph (b)(2) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1054.501 How do I run a valid emission test?

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (2) Use the appropriate fuels and lubricants specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for all the testing we require in this part. Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, use gasoline specified for general testing. For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use engines will use. Note that Sec. 1054.145(n) allows for testing with gasoline test fuels specified by the California Air Resources Board for any individual engine family.

      * * * * *

      Subpart G--Special Compliance Provisions

      0

      97. Section 1054.690 is amended by adding the introductory text and revising paragraphs (a) through (f) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1054.690 What bond requirements apply for certified engines?

      This section generally applies for certifying engine manufacturers. It also applies to importers that do not certify engines as described in paragraph (j) of this section.

      (a) Before introducing certified engines into U.S. commerce, you must post a bond to cover any potential compliance or enforcement actions under the Clean Air Act with respect to engines certified under this part unless you demonstrate to us in your application for certification that you are able to meet any potential compliance- or enforcement-related obligations, as described in this section. Note that you might also need to post bond under this section to meet your obligations under Sec. 1054.120(f).

      (b) The bonding requirements apply if you do not have long-term assets in the United States meeting any of the following thresholds:

      (1) A threshold of $3 million applies if you have been a certificate holder in each of the preceding ten years without failing a test conducted by EPA officials or having been found by EPA to be noncompliant under applicable regulations.

      (2) A threshold of $6 million applies if you are a secondary engine manufacturer.

      (3) A threshold of $10 million applies if you do not qualify for the smaller bond thresholds in paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of this section.

      (c) For the purpose of establishing your level of long-term assets under paragraph (b) of this section, include the values from your most recent balance sheet for buildings, land, and fixed equipment, but subtract depreciation and related long-term liabilities (such as a mortgage). If you have sufficient long-term assets to avoid bond payments under this section, you must identify the location of these assets in your application for certification.

      (d) Determine the value of the bond as follows:

      (1) Calculate a value based on the per-engine bond values shown in Table 1 to this section and on the projected U.S.-directed production volume from each displacement grouping for the model year. For example, if you have projected U.S.-directed production volumes of 10,000 engines with 180 cc displacement and 10,000 engines with 400 cc displacement in 2013, the calculated bond amount is $750,000. If the calculated value is less than $500,000, the appropriate bond amount is $500,000. If the calculated value exceeds the applicable threshold value specified in paragraph (b) of this section, use the applicable threshold value as the appropriate value of the bond. These values may be adjusted as described in paragraphs (d)(2) through (4) of this section. You may generally change your projected U.S.-directed production volume under Sec. 1054.225

      Page 9115

      during the model year; however, you may not decrease your bond based on new projected U.S.-directed production volumes once you have imported or otherwise introduced into U.S. commerce your first engine from that model year.

      Table 1 to Sec. 1054.690--Per-Engine Bond Values

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      The per-

      For engines with displacement falling in the following engine bond

      ranges . . . value is . . .

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Disp. 1,000 cc........................................ 200

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      (2) If your estimated or actual U.S.-directed production volume increases beyond the level appropriate for your current bond payment, you must post additional bond to reflect the increased volume within 90 days after you change your estimate or determine the actual production volume. You may not decrease your bond in a given year, but you may calculate a lower bond value in a later year based on the highest actual U.S.-directed production volumes from the preceding three years.

      (3) If you sell engines without aftertreatment components under the provisions of Sec. 1054.610, you must increase the per-engine bond values for the current year by 20 percent.

      (4) The minimum bond value is $25,000 instead of $500,000 if you are a small-volume engine manufacturer or a small-volume equipment manufacturer that has been a certificate holder in each of the preceding five years without failing a test conducted by EPA officials or having been found by EPA to be noncompliant under applicable regulations.

      (e) The threshold identified in paragraph (b) of this section and the bond values identified in paragraph (d) of this section are in 2008 dollars. We will adjust these values for 2020 and later, and every 10 years after that, by considering the current Consumer Price Index values published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics relative to 2008. We will generally round values for thresholds and total bond obligations as follows:

      (1) Round calculated values at or below $125,000 to the nearest $5,000.

      (2) Round calculated values above $125,000 and at or below $2.25 million to the nearest $50,000.

      (3) Round calculated values above $2.25 million to the nearest $500,000.

      (f) If you are required to post a bond under this section, you must get the bond from a third-party surety that is cited in the U.S. Department of Treasury Circular 570, ``Companies Holding Certificates of Authority as Acceptable Sureties on Federal Bonds and as Acceptable Reinsuring Companies'' (http://www.fms.treas.gov/c570/c570.html#certified). You must maintain this bond for every year in which you sell certified engines. The surety agent remains responsible for obligations under the bond for two years after the bond is cancelled or expires without being replaced.

      * * * * *

      PART 1060--CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT

      0

      98. The authority citation for part 1060 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      Subpart A--Overview and Applicability

      0

      99. Section 1060.5 is amended by revising paragraphs (b)(2), (e), and (f), including Tables 1 through 3, to read as follows:

      Sec. 1060.5 Do the requirements of this part apply to me?

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (2) Vessel manufacturers are subject to all the requirements of this part 1060 that apply to Marine SI engines and fuel systems. However, they must certify to the emission standards specified in Sec. Sec. 1060.102 through 1060.105 only if one or more of the following conditions apply:

      (i) Vessel manufacturers must certify fuel system components they install in their vessels if the components are not certified to meet all applicable evaporative emission standards, including both permeation and diurnal standards. This would include vessel manufacturers that make their own fuel tanks. Vessel manufacturers would need to act as component manufacturers to certify under this part 1060.

      (ii) Vessel manufacturers must certify their vessels only if they intend to generate or use evaporative emission credits. Vessel manufacturers would certify under part 40 CFR part 1045 using the emission-credit provisions in subpart H of that part to demonstrate compliance with the emission standard.

      * * * * *

      (e) Small SI. Certify engines, equipment, and fuel-system components as follows:

      (1) Component manufacturers must certify their fuel lines and fuel tanks intended for Small SI engines and equipment under this part 1060, except as allowed by Sec. 1060.601(f).

      (2) Equipment manufacturers must certify fuel system components they install in their equipment if the components are not certified to meet applicable evaporative emission standards. Equipment manufacturers would need to act as component manufacturers to certify fuel-system components under this part 1060.

      (3) Engine manufacturers must meet all the requirements of this part 1060 that apply to equipment manufacturers for all fuel-system components they install on their engines. Engine manufacturers that produce Small SI engines with complete fuel systems are considered the equipment manufacturers for those engines under this part 1060.

      (4) Equipment manufacturers must certify their equipment and are subject to all the requirements of this part 1060; however, this does not apply for equipment using portable nonroad fuel tanks.

      (f) Summary of certification responsibilities. Tables 1 through 3 of this section summarize the certification responsibilities for different kinds of manufacturers as described in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section. The term ``No'' as used in the tables means that a manufacturer is not required to obtain a certificate of conformity under paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section. In situations where multiple manufacturers are subject to the standards and other requirements of this part, such a manufacturer must nevertheless certify if the manufacturer who is required to certify under paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section fails to obtain a certificate of conformity.

      Page 9116

      Table 1 to Sec. 1060.5--Summary of Engine Manufacturer Evaporative Certification Responsibilities

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Is the engine manufacturer

      required to certify for Code of Federal Regulations Cite for

      Equipment type evaporative emission standards? Certification

      \a\

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Marine SI............................... No.............................

      Large SI................................ Yes............................ 40 CFR part 1048.

      Recreational vehicles................... No.............................

      Small SI................................ No, unless engines are sold 40 CFR part 1060.

      with complete fuel systems.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \a\ Fuel lines and fuel tanks that are attached to or sold with engines must be covered by a certificate of

      conformity.

      Table 2 to Sec. 1060.5--Summary of Equipment Manufacturer Evaporative Certification Responsibilities

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Is the equipment manufacturer

      Equipment type required to certify for Code of Federal Regulations Cite for

      evaporative emission standards? Certification

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Marine SI............................... Yes, but only if vessel 40 CFR part 1060.\a\

      manufacturers install

      uncertified fuel lines or fuel

      tanks, or they intend to

      generate or use evaporative

      emission credits.

      Large SI................................ Allowed but not required....... 40 CFR part 1060.

      Recreational vehicles................... Yes, even if vehicle 40 CFR part 1051.

      manufacturers install

      certified components.

      Small SI................................ Yes, unless the equipment uses 40 CFR part 1060.\a\

      portable nonroad fuel tanks.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \a\ See the exhaust standard-setting part for provisions related to generating or using evaporative emission

      credits.

      Table 3 of Sec. 1060.5--Summary of Component Manufacturer Certification Responsibilities

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Is the component manufacturer

      Equipment type required to certify fuel lines Code of Federal Regulations Cite for

      and fuel tanks? Certification

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Marine SI............................... Yes, including portable marine 40 CFR part 1060.

      fuel tanks and associated fuel

      lines \a\.

      Large SI................................ Allowed but not required....... 40 CFR part 1060.

      Recreational vehicles................... Allowed but not required....... 40 CFR part 1060.

      Small SI................................ Yes \a\........................ 40 CFR part 1060.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \a\ See Sec. 1060.601 for an allowance to make contractual arrangements with engine or equipment manufacturers

      instead of certifying.

      Subpart F--Test Procedures

      0

      100. Section 1060.515 is amended by revising paragraphs (c) and (d) and adding paragraph (e) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1060.515 How do I test EPA Nonroad Fuel Lines and EPA Cold-

      Weather Fuel Lines for permeation emissions?

      * * * * *

      (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, measure fuel line permeation emissions using the equipment and procedures for weight-loss testing specified in SAE J30 or SAE J1527 (incorporated by reference in Sec. 1060.810). Start the measurement procedure within 8 hours after draining and refilling the fuel line. Perform the emission test over a sampling period of 14 days. You may omit up to two daily measurements in any seven day period. Determine your final emission result based on the average of measured values over the 14-day period. Maintain an ambient temperature of 232 degC throughout the sampling period.

      (d) For fuel lines with a nominal inner diameter below 5.0 mm, you may alternatively measure fuel line permeation emissions using the equipment and procedures for weight-loss testing specified in SAE J2996 (incorporated by reference in Sec. 1060.810). Determine your final emission result based on the average of measured values over the 14-day sampling period. Maintain an ambient temperature of 232 degC throughout the sampling period.

      (e) Use good engineering judgment to test short fuel line segments. For example, you may need to join individual fuel line segments using proper connection fittings to achieve enough length and surface area for a proper measurement. Size the fuel reservoir appropriately for the tested fuel line.

      0

      101. Section 1060.520 is amended by revising paragraphs (a)(1), (c)(1), and (d)(9) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1060.520 How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (1) Pressure cycling. Perform a pressure test by sealing the tank and cycling it between +13.8 and -3.4 kPa (+2.0 and -0.5 psig) for 10,000 cycles at a rate of 60 seconds per cycle. The purpose of this test is to represent environmental wall stresses caused by pressure changes and other factors (such as vibration or thermal expansion). If your tank cannot be tested using the pressure cycles specified by this paragraph (a)(1), you may ask to use special test procedures under Sec. 1060.505.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (1) Obtain a second tank whose total volume is within 5 percent of the test tank's volume. You may not use a tank that has previously contained fuel or any other contents that might affect its mass stability.

      * * * * *

      (d) * * *

      (9) Record the difference in mass between the reference tank and the test tank for each measurement. This value is Mi, where i is a counter representing the number of days elapsed. Subtract Mi from Mo and divide the difference by the internal surface area of the fuel tank. Divide this g/m\2\ value by the number of test days (using at least two decimal places) to calculate the emission rate in g/m\2\/day. Example: If a tank with an internal surface area of 0.720 m\2\ weighed 1.31 grams less than the reference tank at the beginning of the test and weighed 9.86 grams less than

      Page 9117

      the reference tank after soaking for 10.03 days, the emission rate would be--

      ((-1.31 g)-(-9.86 g))/0.720 m\2\/10.03 days = 1.1839 g/m\2\/day

      * * * * *

      0

      102. Section 1060.525 is revised to read as follows:

      Sec. 1060.525 How do I test fuel systems for diurnal emissions?

      Use the procedures of this section to determine whether your fuel tanks meet diurnal emission standards as specified in Sec. 1060.105.

      (a) Use the following procedure to measure diurnal emissions:

      (1) Diurnal measurements are based on representative temperature cycles, as follows:

      (i) Diurnal fuel temperatures for marine fuel tanks that will be installed in nontrailerable boats must undergo repeat temperature swings of 2.6 degC between nominal values of 27.6 and 30.2 degC.

      (ii) Diurnal fuel temperatures for other installed marine fuel tanks must undergo repeat temperature swings of 6.6 degC between nominal values of 25.6 and 32.2 degC.

      (iii) For fuel tanks installed in equipment other than marine vessels, the following table specifies a profile of ambient temperatures:

      Table 1 to Sec. 1060.525--Diurnal Temperature Profiles for Nonmarine

      Fuel Tanks

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Ambient

      temperature

      Time (hours) profile

      (degC)

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      0....................................................... 22.2

      1....................................................... 22.5

      2....................................................... 24.2

      3....................................................... 26.8

      4....................................................... 29.6

      5....................................................... 31.9

      6....................................................... 33.9

      7....................................................... 35.1

      8....................................................... 35.4

      9....................................................... 35.6

      10...................................................... 35.3

      11...................................................... 34.5

      12...................................................... 33.2

      13...................................................... 31.4

      14...................................................... 29.7

      15...................................................... 28.2

      16...................................................... 27.2

      17...................................................... 26.1

      18...................................................... 25.1

      19...................................................... 24.3

      20...................................................... 23.7

      21...................................................... 23.3

      22...................................................... 22.9

      23...................................................... 22.6

      24...................................................... 22.2

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      (2) Fill the fuel tank to 40 percent of nominal capacity with the gasoline specified in 40 CFR 1065.710 for general testing.

      (3) Install a vapor line from any vent ports that would not be sealed in the final in-use configuration. Use a length of vapor line representing the largest inside diameter and shortest length that would be expected with the range of in-use installations for the emission family.

      (4) If the fuel tank is equipped with a carbon canister, load the canister with butane or gasoline vapors to its canister working capacity as specified in Sec. 1060.240(e)(2)(i) and attach it to the fuel tank in a way that represents a typical in-use configuration. Purge the canister as follows to prepare for emission measurement:

      (i) For marine fuel tanks, perform a single heating and cooling cycle as specified in paragraph (a)(7) of this section without measuring emissions.

      (ii) For nonmarine fuel tanks, establish a characteristic purge volume by running an engine with the fuel tank installed to represent an in-use configuration. Measure the volume of air flowing through the canister while the engine operates for 30 minutes over repeat cycles of the appropriate duty cycle used for certifying the engine for exhaust emissions. Set up the loaded canister for testing by purging it with the characteristic purge volume from the engine simulation run.

      (5) Stabilize the fuel tank to be within 2.0 degC of the nominal starting temperature specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. In the case of marine fuel tanks, install a thermocouple meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 86.107-96(e) in the approximate mid-volume of fuel and record the temperature at the end of the stabilization period to the nearest 0.1 degC. For sealed fuel systems, replace the fuel cap once the fuel reaches equilibrium at the appropriate starting temperature.

      (6) Prepare the tank for mass measurement using one of the following procedures:

      (i) Place the stabilized fuel tank in a SHED meeting the specifications of 40 CFR 86.107-96(a)(1) that is equipped with a FID analyzer meeting the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.260. Take the following steps in sequence:

      (A) Purge the SHED.

      (B) Close and seal the SHED.

      (C) Zero and span the FID analyzer.

      (D) Within ten minutes of sealing the SHED, measure the initial hydrocarbon concentration. This is the start of the sampling period.

      (ii) If your testing configuration involves mass emissions at the standard of 2.0 grams or more, you may alternatively place the stabilized fuel tank in any temperature-controlled environment and establish mass emissions as a weight loss relative to a reference fuel tank using the procedure specified in Sec. 1060.520(d) instead of calculating it from changing hydrocarbon concentrations in the SHED.

      (7) Control temperatures as follows:

      (i) For marine fuel tanks, supply heat to the fuel tank for continuously increasing temperatures such that the fuel reaches the maximum temperature in 8 hours. Set the target temperature by adding the temperature swing specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section to the recorded starting temperature. Hold the tank for approximately 60 minutes at a temperature no less than 0.1 degC below the target temperature. For example, if the recorded starting fuel temperature for a fuel tank that will be installed in a nontrailerable vessel is 27.1 degC, the target temperature is 29.7 degC and the fuel must be stabilized for 60 minutes with fuel temperatures not falling below 29.6 degC. For EPA testing, fuel temperatures may not go 1.0 degC above the target temperature at any point during the heating or stabilization sequence. Measure the hydrocarbon concentration in the SHED at the end of the high-temperature stabilization period. Calculate the diurnal emissions for this heating period based on the change in hydrocarbon concentration over this sampling period. Allow the fuel temperature to cool sufficiently to stabilize again at the starting temperature without emission sampling. Repeat the heating and measurement sequence for three consecutive days, starting each heating cycle no more than 26 hours after the previous start.

      (ii) For nonmarine fuel tanks, follow the air temperature trace from paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section for three consecutive 24-

      hour periods. Measured temperatures must follow the profile with a maximum deviation of 1.7 degC for any hourly measurement and an average temperature deviation not to exceed 1.0 degC, where the average deviation is calculated using the absolute value of each measured deviation. Start measuring emissions when you start the temperature profile. The end of the first, second, and third emission sampling periods must occur 14406, 28806, and 43206 minutes, respectively, after starting the measurement procedure.

      (8) Use the highest of the three emission levels to determine whether your fuel tank meets the diurnal emission standard.

      (9) For emission control technologies that rely on a sealed fuel system, you may omit the preconditioning steps in paragraph (a)(4) of this section and the last two 24-hour periods of emission

      Page 9118

      measurements in paragraph (a)(7) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (a), sealed fuel systems include those that rely on pressure-

      relief valves, limiting flow orifices, bladder fuel tanks, and volume-

      compensating air bags.

      (b) You may subtract your fuel tank's permeation emissions from the measured diurnal emissions if the fuel tank is preconditioned with diurnal test fuel as described in Sec. 1060.520(b) or if you use good engineering judgment to otherwise establish that the fuel tank has stabilized permeation emissions. Measure permeation emissions for subtraction as specified in Sec. 1060.520(c) and (d) before measuring diurnal emissions, except that the permeation measurement must be done with diurnal test fuel at 282 degC. Use appropriate units and corrections to subtract the permeation emissions from the fuel tank during the diurnal emission test. You may not subtract a greater mass of emissions under this paragraph (b) than the fuel tank would emit based on meeting the applicable emission standard for permeation.

      0

      103. Section 1060.810 is revised to read as follows:

      Sec. 1060.810 What materials does this part reference?

      (a) Materials incorporated by reference. Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a document must be published in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. All approved material is available for inspection at U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Room B102, EPA West Building, Washington, DC 20460, (202) 202-1744, and is available from the sources listed below. It is also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

      (b) ASTM International material. The following standards are available from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959, (610) 832-9585, or http://www.astm.org/:

      (1) ASTM D471-06, Standard Test Method for Rubber Property--Effect of Liquids, approved October 1, 2006 (``ASTM D471''), IBR approved for Sec. 1060.515(a).

      (2) ASTM D2862-97 (Reapproved 2004), Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Granular Activated Carbon, approved April 1, 2004 (``ASTM D2862''), IBR approved for Sec. 1060.240(e).

      (3) ASTM D3802-79 (Reapproved 2005), Standard Test Method for Ball-

      Pan Hardness of Activated Carbon, approved October 1, 2005 (``ASTM D3802''), IBR approved for Sec. 1060.240(e).

      (4) ASTM D4806-07, Standard Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-

      Ignition Engine Fuel, approved July 15, 2007 (``ASTM D4806''), IBR approved for Sec. 1060.501(c).

      (5) ASTM D5228-92 (Reapproved 2005), Standard Test Method for Determination of Butane Working Capacity of Activated Carbon, approved October 1, 2005 (``ASTM D5228''), IBR approved for Sec. 1060.801.

      (c) SAE International material. The following standards are available from SAE International, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, (877) 606-7323 (U.S. and Canada) or (724) 776-4970 (outside the U.S. and Canada), or http://www.sae.org:

      (1) SAE J30, Fuel and Oil Hoses, Revised June 1998, IBR approved for Sec. 1060.515(c).

      (2) SAE J1527, Marine Fuel Hoses, Revised February 1993, IBR approved for Sec. 1060.515(c).

      (3) SAE J2260, Nonmetallic Fuel System Tubing with One or More Layers, Revised November 2004, IBR approved for Sec. 1060.510.

      (4) SAE J2659, Test Method to Measure Fluid Permeation of Polymeric Materials by Speciation, Issued December 2003, IBR approved for Sec. 1060.801.

      (5) SAE J2996, Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice, Small Diameter Fuel Line Permeation Test Procedure, Issued January 2013, IBR approved for Sec. 1060.515(d).

      (d) California Air Resources Board. The following documents are available from the California Air Resources Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA, 95812, (916) 322-2884, or http://www.arb.ca.gov:

      (1) Final Regulation Order, Article 1, Chapter 15, Division 3, Title 13, California Code of Regulations, July 26, 2004, IBR approved for Sec. 1060.105(e), and 1060.240(e).

      (2) Reserved

      (e) American Boat and Yacht Council Material. The following documents are available from the American Boat and Yacht Council, 613 Third Street, Suite 10, Annapolis, MD 21403 or (410) 990-4460 or http://www.abycinc.org/:

      (1) ABYC H-25, Portable Marine Gasoline Fuel Systems, July 2010, IBR approved for Sec. 1060.105(f).

      (2) Reserved

      PART 1065--ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES

      0

      104. The authority citation for part 1065 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      Subpart A--Applicability and General Provisions

      0

      105. Section 1065.10 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(6) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1065.10 Other procedures.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (6) During the 12 months following the effective date of any change in the provisions of this part 1065 (and 40 CFR part 1066 for vehicle testing), you may use data collected using procedures specified in the previously applicable version of this part 1065 (and 40 CFR part 1066 for vehicle testing). This also applies for changes to test procedures specified in the standard-setting part to the extent that these changes do not correspond to new emission standards. This paragraph (c)(6) does not restrict the use of carryover certification data otherwise allowed by the standard-setting part.

      * * * * *

      Subpart E--Engine Selection, Preparation, and Maintenance

      Sec. 1065.410 Amended

      0

      106. Section 1065.410 is amended by removing paragraph (e).

      Subpart G--Calculations and Data Requirements

      0

      107. Section 1065.610 is amended by republishing paragraph (a)(1)(vi), adding paragraph (a)(1)(vii), and removing paragraph (a)(1)(viii) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1065.610 Duty cycle generation.

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (1) * * *

      (vi) Determine the lowest and highest engine speeds corresponding to the value calculated in paragraph (a)(1)(v) of this section, using linear interpolation as appropriate. Calculate fntest as the average of these two speed values.

      (vii) The following example illustrates a calculation of fntest:

      Page 9119

      Pmax = 230.0

      (fn1 = 2360, P1 = 222.5, fnnorm1 = 1.002, Pnorm1 = 0.9675)

      (fn2 = 2364, P2 = 226.8, fnnorm2 = 1.004, Pnorm2 = 0.9859)

      (fn3 = 2369, P3 = 228.6, fnnorm3 = 1.006, Pnorm3 = 0.9940)

      (fn4 = 2374, P4 = 218.7, fnnorm4 = 1.008, Pnorm4 = 0.9508)

      Sum of squares = (1.002\2\ + 0.9675\2\) = 1.94

      Sum of squares = (1.004\2\ + 0.9859\2\) = 1.98

      Sum of squares = (1.006\2\ + 0.9940\2\) = 2.00

      Sum of squares = (1.008\2\ + 0.9508\2\) = 1.92

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.022

      * * * * *

      0

      108. Section 1065.650 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(1)(i) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1065.650 Emission calculations.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (1) * * *

      (i) Correct all gaseous emission analyzer concentration readings, including continuous readings, sample bag readings, and dilution air background readings, for drift as described in Sec. 1065.672. Note that you must omit this step where brake-specific emissions are calculated without the drift correction for performing the drift validation according to Sec. 1065.550(b). When applying the initial THC and CH4 contamination readings according to Sec. 1065.520(f), use the same values for both sets of calculations. You may also use as-measured values in the initial set of calculations and corrected values in the drift-corrected set of calculations as described in Sec. 1065.520(f)(7).

      * * * * *

      Subpart H--Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards

      0

      109. Section 1065.710 is amended by revising paragraph (c), including Table 2 to read as follows:

      Sec. 1065.710 Gasoline.

      * * * * *

      (c) The specifications of this paragraph (c) apply for testing with neat gasoline. This is sometimes called indolene or E0 test fuel. Gasoline for testing must have octane values that represent commercially available fuels for the appropriate application. Test fuel specifications apply as follows:

      Table 2 of Sec. 1065.710--Test Fuel Specifications for Neat (E0) Gasoline

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Specification

      ---------------------------------------- Reference

      Property Unit Low-temperature procedure \1\

      General testing testing

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Distillation Range:

      Evaporated initial boiling degC............ 24-35\2\.......... 24-36............. ASTM D86

      point.

      10% evaporated.............. .................. 49-57............. 37-48.............

      50% evaporated.............. .................. 93-110............ 82-101............

      90% evaporated.............. .................. 149-163........... 158-174...........

      Evaporated final boiling .................. Maximum, 213...... Maximum, 212......

      point.

      Hydrocarbon composition:

      Olefins..................... volume %.......... Maximum, 10....... Maximum, 17.5..... ASTM D1319

      Aromatics................... .................. Maximum, 35....... Maximum, 30.4.....

      Saturates................... .................. Remainder......... Remainder.........

      Lead............................ g/liter........... Maximum, 0.013.... Maximum, 0.013.... ASTM D3237

      Phosphorous..................... g/liter........... Maximum, 0.0013... Maximum, 0.005.... ASTM D3231

      Total sulfur.................... mg/kg............. Maximum, 80....... Maximum, 80....... ASTM D2622

      Dry vapor pressure equivalent kPa (psi)......... 60.0-63.4 \2,4\ 77.2-81.4 (11.2- ASTM D5191

      \3\. (8.7-9.2). 11.8).

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      \1\ ASTM procedures are incorporated by reference in Sec. 1065.1010. See Sec. 1065.701(d) for other allowed

      procedures.

      \2\ For testing at altitudes above 1219 m, the specified initial boiling point range is (23.9 to 40.6) degC

      and the specified volatility range is (52.0 to 55.2) kPa ((7.5 to 8.0) psi).

      \3\ Calculate dry vapor pressure equivalent, DVPE, based on the measured total vapor pressure, pT, in kPa using

      the following equation: DVPE (kPa) = 0.956 middot pT-2.39 or DVPE (psi) = 0.956 middot pT-0.347. DVPE is

      intended to be equivalent to Reid Vapor Pressure using a different test method.

      Page 9120

      \4\ For testing unrelated to evaporative emissions, the specified range is (55.2 to 63.4) kPa ((8.0 to 9.2)

      psi).

      * * * * *

      PART 1066--VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES

      0

      110. The authority citation for part 1066 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

      Subpart A--Applicability and General Provisions

      0

      111. Section 1066.10 is amended by revising paragraph (c) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.10 Other procedures.

      * * * * *

      (c) Exceptions. You may use procedures other than those specified in this part as described in 40 CFR 1065.10(c). All the test procedures noted as exceptions to the specified procedures are considered generically as ``other procedures.'' Note that the terms ``special procedures'' and ``alternate procedures'' have specific meanings; ``special procedures'' are those allowed by 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(2) and ``alternate procedures'' are those allowed by 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(7). If we require you to request approval to use other procedures under this paragraph (c), you may not use them until we approve your request.

      Subpart B--Equipment, Measurement Instruments, Fuel, and Analytical Gas Specifications

      0

      112. Section 1066.125 is amended by revising paragraph (a)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.125 Data updating, recording, and control.

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (1) This paragraph (a)(1) applies where we specify a minimum command and control frequency that is greater than the minimum recording frequency, such as for sample flow rates from a CVS that does not have a heat exchanger. For these measurements, the rate at which you read and interpret the signal must be at least as frequent as the minimum command and control frequency. You may record values at the same frequency, or you may record them as mean values, as long as the frequency of the mean values meets the minimum recording frequency. You must use all read values, either by recording them or using them to calculate mean values. For example, if your system reads and controls the sample flow rate at 10 Hz, you may record these values at 10 Hz, record them at 5 Hz by averaging pairs of consecutive points together, or record them at 1 Hz by averaging ten consecutive points together.

      * * * * *

      Subpart C--Dynamometer Specifications

      0

      113. Section 1066.235 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(1)(i) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.235 Speed verification procedure.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (1) * * *

      (i) Set the dynamometer to speed-control mode. Set the dynamometer speed to a value of approximately 4.5 m/s (10 mph); record the output of the frequency counter after 10 seconds. Determine the roll speed, vact, using the following equation:

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.023

      Where:

      f = frequency of the dynamometer speed sensing device, accurate to at least four significant figures.

      droll = nominal roll diameter, accurate to the nearest 1.0 mm, consistent with Sec. 1066.225(d).

      n = the number of pulses per revolution from the dynamometer roll speed sensor.

      Example: f = 2.9231 Hz = 2.9231 s-\1\

      droll = 904.40 mm = 0.90440 m

      n = 1 pulse/rev

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.024

      vact = 8.3053 m/s

      * * * * *

      0

      114. Section 1066.255 is amended by revising paragraph (d) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.255 Parasitic loss verification.

      * * * * *

      (d) Performance evaluation. Some dynamometers automatically update the parasitic loss curve for further testing. If this is not the case, compare the new parasitic loss curve to the original parasitic loss curve from the dynamometer manufacturer or the most recent parasitic loss curve you programmed into the dynamometer. You may reprogram the dynamometer to accept the new curve in all cases, and you must reprogram the dynamometer if any point on the new curve departs from the earlier curve by more than 9.0 N (2.0 lbf) for dynamometers capable of testing vehicles at or below 20,000 pounds GVWR, or 36.0 N (8.0 lbf) for dynamometers not capable of testing vehicles at or below 20,000 pounds GVWR.

      0

      115. Section 1066.270 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(4) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066. 270 Unloaded coastdown verification.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (4) Determine the average coastdown force, F, for each speed and inertia setting for each of the coastdowns performed using the following equation:

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.025

      Where:

      F = the average force measured during the coastdown for each speed interval and inertia setting, expressed in lbf middot s\2\/ft and rounded to four significant figures.

      I = the dynamometer's inertia setting, in lbf middot s\2\/ft.

      vinit = the speed at the start of the coastdown interval, expressed in ft/s to at least four significant figures.

      Page 9121

      vfinal = the speed at the end of the coastdown interval, expressed in ft/s to at least four significant figures.

      t = coastdown time for each speed interval and inertia setting, accurate to at least 0.01 s.

      Example: I = 2000 lbm = 62.16 lbf middot s\2\/ft

      vinit = 25 mph = 36.66 ft/s

      vfinal = 15 mph = 22.0 ft/s

      t = 5.00 s

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.026

      F = 182.2 lbf

      * * * * *

      Subpart D--Coastdown

      0

      116. Section 1066.301 is revised to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.301 Overview of road-load determination procedures.

      (a) The procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the road-load target coefficients (A, B, and C) for the simulated road-

      load equation in Sec. 1066.210(d)(3).

      (b) The general procedure for determining road-load force is performing coastdown tests and calculating road-load coefficients. This procedure is described in SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 (incorporated by reference in Sec. 1066.1010). This subpart specifies certain deviations from those procedures for certain applications.

      (c) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of road-load determination. For example, minimize the effects of grade by performing coastdown testing on reasonably level surfaces and determining coefficients based on average values from vehicle operation in opposite directions over the course.

      0

      117. Section 1066.305 is revised to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.305 Procedures for specifying road-load forces for motor vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR.

      (a) For motor vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR, develop representative road-load coefficients to characterize each vehicle covered by a certificate of conformity. Calculate road-load target coefficients by performing coastdown tests using the provisions of SAE J2263 (incorporated by reference in Sec. 1066.1010). This protocol establishes a procedure for determination of vehicle road load force for speeds between 115 and 15 km/h (71.5 and 9.3 mi/h); the final result is a model of road-load force (as a function of speed) during operation on a dry, level road under reference conditions of 20 degC, 98.21 kPa, no wind, no precipitation, and the transmission in neutral. You may use other methods that are equivalent to SAE J2263, such as equivalent test procedures or analytical modeling, to characterize road load using good engineering judgment. Determine dynamometer settings to simulate the road-load profile represented by these road-load target coefficients as described in Sec. 1066.315. Supply representative road-load forces for each vehicle at speeds above 15 km/hr (9.3 mph), and up to 115 km/hr (71.5 mph), or the highest speed from the range of applicable duty cycles.

      (b) For cold temperature testing described in subpart H of this part, determine road-load target coefficients using one of the following methods:

      (1) You may perform coastdown tests or use other methods to characterize road load as described in paragraph (a) of this section based on vehicle operation at a nominal ambient temperature of -7 degC (20emsp14degF).

      (2) You may multiply each of the road-load target coefficients determined using the procedures described in paragraph (a) of this section by 1.1 to approximate a 10 percent decrease in coastdown time for the test vehicle.

      Subpart E--Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test

      0

      118. Section 1066.410 is amended by revising paragraph (b) introductory text to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.410 Dynamometer test procedure.

      * * * * *

      (b) Place the vehicle onto the dynamometer without starting the engine (for any test cycles) or drive the vehicle onto the dynamometer (for hot-start and hot-running cycles only) and position a fan that directs cooling air to the vehicle during dynamometer operation as described in this paragraph (b). This generally requires squarely positioning the fan in front of the vehicle and directing the airflow to the vehicle's radiator. Use good engineering judgment to design and configure fans to cool the test vehicle in a way that properly simulates in-use operation, consistent with the specifications of Sec. 1066.105. Except for the following special cases, use a road-speed modulated fan meeting the requirements of Sec. 1066.105(c)(2) that is placed within 90 cm of the front of the vehicle and ensure that the engine compartment cover (i.e., hood) is closed:

      * * * * *

      0

      119. Section 1066.420 is amended by revising paragraph (b) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.420 Test preparation.

      * * * * *

      (b) For vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR with compression-ignition engines, verify the amount of nonmethane hydrocarbon contamination as described in 40 CFR 1065.520(f).

      * * * * *

      Subpart F--Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

      0

      120. Section 1066.501 is amended by revising paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) and (iii) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.501 Overview.

      * * * * *

      (a) * * *

      (2) * * *

      (ii) We may approve the use of the alternate End-of-Test criterion in Section 3.9.1 of SAE J1711 for charge-depleting tests and the Net Energy Change correction in Appendix C of SAE J1711 for charge-

      sustaining tests if the specified criterion and correction are insufficient or inappropriate.

      (iii) For charge-sustaining tests Appendix C of SAE J1711 may be used to correct final fuel economy values, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions, but may not be used to correct measured values for criteria pollutant emissions.

      * * * * *

      Subpart G--Calculations

      0

      121. Section 1066.605 is amended by revising paragraphs (c)(5) and (c)(6) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.605 Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (5) Correct all gaseous concentrations for dilution air background as described in Sec. 1066.610.

      (6) Correct NOX emission values for intake-air humidity as described in Sec. 1066.615.

      * * * * *

      0

      122. Section 1066.615 is revised to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.615 NOX intake-air humidity correction.

      You may correct NOX emissions for intake-air humidity as described in this section if the standard-setting part allows it. See Sec. 1066.605(c) for the proper sequence for applying the NOX intake-air humidity correction.

      (a) For vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR, apply a correction for vehicles with reciprocating engines operating over specific test cycles as follows:

      Page 9122

      (1) Calculate a humidity correction using a time-weighted mean value for ambient humidity over the test interval. Calculate absolute ambient humidity, H, using the following equation:

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.027

      Where:

      MH2O = molar mass of H2O.

      pd = saturated vapor pressure at the ambient dry bulb temperature.

      RH = relative humidity of ambient air

      Mair = molar mass of air.

      patmos = atmospheric pressure.

      Example: MH2O = 18.01528 g/mol

      pd = 2.93 kPa

      RH = 37.5%

      Mair = 28.96559 g/mol

      patmos = 96.71 kPa

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.028

      (2) Use the following equation to correct measured concentrations to a reference condition of 10.71 grams H2O vapor per kilogram of dry air for the FTP, US06, LA-92, SC03, and HFET test cycles:

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.029

      Where:

      chiNOx = measured NOX emission concentration in the sample, after dry-to-wet and background corrections.

      Hs = humidity scale. Set = 1 for FTP, US06, LA-92, and HFET test cycles. Set = 0.8825 for the SC03 test cycle.

      H = ambient humidity, as determined in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

      Example: H = 7.14741 g H2O vapor/kg dry air time weighted over the FTP test cycle

      chiNOx = 1.21 ppm

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.030

      (b) For vehicles above 14,000 pounds GVWR, apply correction factors as described in 40 CFR 1065.670.

      0

      123. Section 1066.635 is amended by adding paragraph (c)(6) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.635 NMOG determination.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (6) For PHEVs, you may determine NMOG based on testing over one full UDDS using Eq. 1066.635-3.

      * * * * *

      Subpart H--Cold Temperature Test Procedures

      0

      124. Section 1066.701 is amended by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.701 Applicability and general provisions.

      (a) The procedures of this part 1066 may be used for testing at any ambient temperature. Section 1066.710 describes the provisions that apply for testing vehicles at a nominal temperature of -7 degC (20 degF); these procedures apply for motor vehicles as described in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and 40 CFR part 600. For other vehicles, see the standard-setting part to determine if your vehicle is required to meet emission standards outside the normal (20 to 30) degC ((68 to 86) degF) temperature range.

      * * * * *

      0

      125. Section 1066.710 is amended by revising paragraph (c) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.710 Cold temperature testing procedures for measuring CO and NMHC emissions and determining fuel economy.

      * * * * *

      (c) Heater and defroster. During the test, operate the vehicle's interior climate control system with the heat on and set to primarily defrost the front window. Turn air conditioning off. You may not use any supplemental auxiliary heat during this testing. You may set the heater to any temperature and fan setting during vehicle preconditioning.

      (1) Manual control. Unless you rely on automatic control as specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, take the following steps to control heater settings:

      (i) Set the climate control system as follows before the first acceleration (t=20 s), or before starting the vehicle if the climate control system allows it:

      (A) Temperature. Set controls to maximum heat. For automatic control systems running in manual mode, set the heater control to 72 degF or higher.

      (B) Fan speed. Set the fan speed to full off or the lowest available speed if a full off position is not available.

      (C) Airflow direction. Direct airflow to the front window (window defrost mode).

      (D) Air source. If independently controllable, set the system to draw in outside air.

      (ii) At the second idle of the test cycle, which occurs 125 seconds after the start of the test, set the fan speed to maximum. Complete by 130 seconds after the start of the test. Leave temperature and air source settings unchanged.

      (iii) At the sixth idle of the test interval, which occurs at the deceleration to zero miles per hour 505

      Page 9123

      seconds after the start of the test, set the fan speed to the lowest setting that maintains air flow. Complete these changes by 510 seconds after the start of the test. You may use different vent and fan speed settings for the remainder of the test. Leave the temperature and air source settings unchanged.

      (2) Automatic control. For vehicles with automatic control systems running in automatic mode, set the temperature to 72 degF and the air flow control to the front window defrost mode for the whole test.

      (3) Multiple-zone systems. For vehicles that have separate driver and passenger controls or separate front and rear controls, you must set all temperature and fan controls as described in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section, except that rear controls need not be set to defrost the front window.

      (4) Alternative test procedures. We may approve the use of other settings under 40 CFR 86.1840 if a vehicle's climate control system is not compatible with the provisions of this section.

      * * * * *

      Subpart I--Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for Motor Vehicles

      0

      126. Section 1066.801 is amended by revising paragraph (c)(2) and Figure 1 in paragraph (e) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.801 Applicability and general provisions.

      * * * * *

      (c) * * *

      (2) The Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) measures the emission effects from aggressive driving and operation with the vehicle's air conditioner. The SFTP is based on a composite of three different test elements. In addition to the FTP, vehicles generally operate over the US06 and SC03 driving schedules as specified in paragraphs (g) and (h) of Appendix I of 40 CFR part 86, respectively. In the case of heavy-duty vehicles above 10,000 pounds GVWR and at or below 14,000 pounds GVWR, SFTP testing involves additional driving over the Hot LA-92 driving schedule as specified in paragraph (c) of 40 CFR part 86, Appendix I, instead of the US06 driving schedule. Note that the US06 driving schedule represents about 8.0 miles of relatively aggressive driving; the SC03 driving schedule represents about 3.6 miles of urban driving with the air conditioner operating; and the hot portion of the LA-92 driving schedule represents about 9.8 miles of relatively aggressive driving for commercial trucks. See Sec. Sec. 1066.815 and 1066.820.

      * * * * *

      (e) * * *

      GRAPHIC TIFF OMITTED TR19FE15.031

      Page 9124

      0

      127. Section 1066.815 is amended by revising paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (iii) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.815 Exhaust emission test procedures for FTP testing.

      * * * * *

      (d) * * *

      (2) * * *

      (ii) Repeat the steps in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section. Operate the vehicle over the first 505 seconds of the UDDS. For tests that do not include bag 4 operation, turn off the engine and simultaneously stop all hot-start sampling and recording, including background sampling, and any integrating devices at the end of the deceleration scheduled to occur 505 seconds into the hot-start UDDS.

      (iii) To include bag 4 measurement, operate the vehicles over the remainder of the UDDS and conclude the testing as described in paragraphs (d)(1)(iii) and (iv) of this section.

      * * * * *

      0

      128. Section 1066.831 is amended as follows:

      0

    38. By revising paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(D).

      0

    39. By adding paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(G).

      0

    40. By revising paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (iii).

      Sec. 1066.831 Exhaust emission test procedures for aggressive driving.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (3) * * *

      (ii) * * *

      (D) US06 driving schedule or, for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 10,000 pounds GVWR with a power-to-weight ratio at or below 0.024 hp/

      lbm, just the highway portion of the US06 driving schedule.

      * * * * *

      (G) The Hot LA-92 driving schedule.

      * * * * *

      (e) * * *

      (2) * * *

      (i) For heavy-duty vehicles above 10,000 pounds GVWR, operate the vehicle over the Hot LA-92 driving schedule.

      * * * * *

      (iii) Non-MDPV heavy-duty vehicles shall be tested at their adjusted loaded vehicle weight as described in 40 CFR 86.1816.

      * * * * *

      0

      129. Section 1066.835 is amended by revising paragraph (e)(2) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.835 Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

      * * * * *

      (e) * * *

      (2) Vehicle frontal air flow. Verify that the fan configuration meets the requirements of Sec. 1066.105(c)(5).

      * * * * *

      0

      130. Section 1066.845 is amended by revising paragraphs (b) and (e)(2) and adding paragraph (e)(3) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.845 AC17 air conditioning efficiency test procedure.

      * * * * *

      (b) Test cell. Operate the vehicle in a test cell meeting the specifications described in Sec. 1066.835(e). You may add airflow up to a maximum of 4 miles per hour during engine idling and when the engine is off if that is needed to meet ambient temperature or humidity requirements.

      * * * * *

      (e) * * *

      (2) For manual systems, select A/C mode, set the temperature to full cold and ``maximum'', set airflow to ``recirculate'' (if so equipped), and select the highest fan setting. During the first idle period of the SC03 driving schedule (between 186 and 204 seconds), reduce the fan speed setting to nominally 50% of maximum fan speed, set airflow to ``fresh air'' (if so equipped), and adjust the temperature setting to target a temperature of 55emsp14degF (13 degC) at the dashboard air outlet. Maintain these settings for the remainder of the test. You may rely on prior temperature measurements to determine the temperature setting; however, if the system is unable to meet the 55emsp14degF (13 degC) target, you may instead set airflow to ``fresh air'' and temperature to full cold. If the vehicle is equipped with technology that defaults to recirculated air at ambient temperatures above 75emsp14degF (22 degC), that technology should remain enabled throughout the test; this may mean not setting the airflow to ``recirculate'' at the start and not setting the airflow to ``fresh air'' during the first idle period of the SC03 driving schedule. Except as specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, use good engineering judgment to apply the settings described in this paragraph (e)(2) equally throughout the vehicle if there are separate controls for different zones (such as rear air conditioning).

      (3) If the air conditioning system is designed with parameters that switch back to a default setting at key-off, perform testing in that default condition. If the air conditioning system includes any optional equipment or user controls not addressed in this paragraph (e), the manufacturer should ask us for preliminary approval to determine the appropriate settings for testing.

      * * * * *

      Subpart J--Evaporative Emission Test Procedures

      0

      131. Section 1066.985 is amended by revising paragraph (d)(9) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.985 Fuel storage system leak test procedure.

      * * * * *

      (d) * * *

      (9) Repeat the test described in this paragraph (d) for each access point described in the application for certification. Use each test result (without averaging) to determine whether the vehicle passes the leak standard.

      * * * * *

      Subpart K--Definitions and Other Reference Material

      0

      132. Section 1066.1001 is amended by adding a definition for ``Hot LA-

      92'' in alphabetical order to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.1001 Definitions.

      * * * * *

      Hot LA-92 means the first 1435 seconds of the LA-92 driving schedule.

      * * * * *

      0

      133. Section 1066.1005 is amended by revising paragraph (h) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.1005 Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.

      * * * * *

      (h) Prefixes. This part uses the following prefixes to define a quantity:

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Symbol Quantity Value

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      n................................. nano................ 10-\9\

      mu.............................. micro............... 10-\6\

      m................................. milli............... 10-\3\

      c................................. centi............... 10-\2\

      k................................. kilo................ 10\3\

      M................................. mega................ 10\6\

      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      0

      134. Section 1066.1010 is amended by revising paragraph (b)(1) to read as follows:

      Sec. 1066.1010 Incorporation by reference.

      * * * * *

      (b) * * *

      (1) SAE J1263, Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques, revised March 2010, IBR approved for Sec. Sec. 1066.301(b) and 1066.310(b).

      * * * * *

      FR Doc. 2015-02846 Filed 2-18-15; 8:45 am

      BILLING CODE 6560-50-P