General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds


Federal Register, Volume 83 Issue 229 (Wednesday, November 28, 2018)

Federal Register Volume 83, Number 229 (Wednesday, November 28, 2018)

Proposed Rules

Pages 61288-61307

From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office

FR Doc No: 2018-25634

Page 61287

Vol. 83


No. 229

November 28, 2018

Part IV

Department of the Interior


Fish and Wildlife Service


50 CFR Part 10

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Proposed Rules

Page 61288



Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 10

Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047; FXMB 12320900000//189//FF09M29000

RIN 1018-BC67

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Proposed rule.


SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to revise the List of Migratory Birds protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and new evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories, removing species no longer known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories, and changing names to conform to accepted use. The net increase of 59 species (66 added and 7 removed) would bring the total number of species protected by the MBTA to 1,085. We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for public notification and regulatory purposes.

DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked on or before January 28, 2019. Comments submitted electronically using the Federal eRulemaking Portal (see ADDRESSES, below) must be received by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the closing date.

ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by one of the following methods:

(1) Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: In the Search box, enter FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, which is the docket number for this rulemaking. Then, click on the Search button. On the resulting page, in the Search panel on the left side of the screen, under the Document Type heading, click on the Proposed Rule box to locate this document. You may submit a comment by clicking on ``Comment Now!''

(2) By hard copy: Submit by U.S. mail or hand-delivery to: Public Comments Processing, Attn: FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS: BPHC, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3803.

We request that you send comments only by the methods described above. We will post all comments on This generally means that we will post any personal information you provide us (see Public Comments, below, for more information).

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Eric L. Kershner, Chief of the Branch of Conservation, Permits, and Regulations; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; MS: MB; 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3803; (703) 358-2376.


What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking?

We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the MBTA (16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:

(1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain on behalf of Canada for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended by Protocol between the Government of the United States and the Government of Canada Amending the 1916 Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of America for the Protection of Migratory Birds, Sen. Treaty Doc. 104-28 (December 14, 1995);

(2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended by Protocol with Mexico amending Convention for Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, Sen. Treaty Doc. 105-26 (May 5, 1997);

(3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and

(4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

What is the purpose of this rulemaking?

Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), parts 10, 20, and 21. We regulate the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for notifying the public of regulatory protections.

Why is the amendment of the list of migratory birds necessary?

The amendments we are proposing are needed to:

(1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection under the MBTA;

(2) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the alphabetized list;

(3) Correct the spelling of 3 species names on the taxonomic list;

(4) Add 22 species based on new distributional records documenting their natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories since 2010;

(5) Add one species moved from a family that was not protected to a family now protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic changes;

(6) Add 26 species newly recognized as a result of recent taxonomic changes;

(7) Remove 7 species not known to occur within the boundaries of the United States or U.S. territories as a result of recent taxonomic changes;

(8) Change the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to accepted use; and

(9) Change the scientific names of 114 species to conform to accepted use.

The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on November 1, 2013 (78 FR 65844). The amendments proposed in this rule were necessitated by eight published supplements to the 7th (1998) edition of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American Birds (AOU 2011, AOU 2012, AOU 2013, AOU 2014, AOU 2015, AOU 2016, AOS 2017, and AOS 2018) and the 2017 publication of the Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017).

What scientific authorities are used to amend the list of migratory birds?

Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on

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the AOS's Checklist of North American birds (AOU 1998), as amended annually (AOU 1999 through 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018), on matters of taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher taxonomic categories (Orders, Families, Subfamilies) for species that occur in North America. The AOS Checklist contains all bird species that have occurred in North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, and includes distributional information for each species, which specifies whether the species is known to occur in the United States. For the species that occur outside the geographic area covered by the AOS Checklist, we relied on Clements et al. (2017) and peer-reviewed literature. Although we primarily rely on the above sources, when informed taxonomic opinion is inconsistent or controversial, we evaluate available published and unpublished information and come to our own conclusion regarding the validity of taxa.

What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the MBTA?

A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or more of the following criteria:

(1) It occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological or ecological processes and is currently, or was previously listed as, a species or part of a family protected by one of the four international treaties or their amendments. Any species that occurs in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction does not qualify for the MBTA list, regardless of whether the family the species belongs to is listed in any of the treaties, unless:

It was native to the United States or its territories and extant in 1918;

It was extirpated after 1918 throughout its range in the United States and its territories; and

After such extirpation, it was reintroduced in the United States or its territories as part of a program carried out by a Federal agency.

(2) Revised taxonomy results in it being newly split from a species that was previously on the list, and the new species occurs in the United States or U.S. territories as the result of natural biological or ecological processes. If a newly recognized native species is considered extinct (following the classification of the American Ornithological Society (AOS) or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements checklist or peer-reviewed literature), that species will still be included if either of the following criteria apply:

The species resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by trade if the species is not included; or

Not including the species may create difficulties implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions.

(3) New evidence exists for its natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories resulting from new or natural distributional changes and the species occurs in a protected family. Records must be documented, accepted, and published by the AOS committee. For the U.S. Pacific territories that fall outside the geographic scope of the AOS and for which there is no identified ornithological authority, new evidence of a species' natural occurrence will be based on the Clements checklist and then published peer-reviewed literature, in that order.

In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 (MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071-72), we only include migratory bird species that are native to the United States or U.S. territories. A native migratory bird species is one that is present as a result of natural biological or ecological processes. The list at 50 CFR 10.13 does not include nonnative species that occur in the United States or U.S. territories solely as a result of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction(s). Elsewhere in today's Federal Register, we publish a notice of availability of the draft revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the MBTA.

How would the proposed changes affect the list of migratory birds?

Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level by the AOS since our 2013 publication of the list (78 FR 65844; November 1, 2013). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic order of species on this list. Specifically, the Order Cathartiformes (New World vultures) was split from the Accipitriformes (diurnal birds of prey). Cathartiformes now includes the Family Cathartidae (vultures and California condor). At the Family level, the Oceanitidae (southern storm-petrels) was split from the Hydrobatidae (northern storm-

petrels), the Tityridae (becards and tityras) was split from the Tyrannidae (tyrant flycatchers), the Passerellidae (towhees, sparrows, and juncos) was split from the Emberizidae (buntings), the Megaluridae (Locustella warblers) was renamed to Locustellidae. The Ptilogonatidae (silky-flycatchers) was renamed to the Ptiliogonatidae. The Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican tanager) and the Spindalidae (Spindalis genus) were split from the Thraupidae (tanagers). The yellow-breasted chat was split from the Parulidae (wood-warblers) and placed into Icteriidae (chats). Within the Scolopacidae (sandpipers, phalaropes, and allies), new Subfamilies were created: The curlews were moved to Numeniinae; the godwits to Limosinae; and small sandpipers to Arenariinae and larger sandpipers to Tringinae, including phalaropes whose previous Subfamily Phalaropodinae was removed. Within the Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, and kites), new Subfamilies were created: The white-tailed kite was move to Elaninae, hook-billed and swallow-

tailed kite were moved to Gypaetinae, and all other members of the family were moved to Accipitrinae. Within the Icteridae (blackbirds), new Subfamilies were created: Yellow-headed blackbird was moved to Xanthocephalinae; bobolink was moved to Dolichonychinae; meadowlarks were moved to Sturnellinae; orioles were moved to Icterinae; and blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles were moved to Agelaiinae. In the Falconidae (caracaras and falcons), collared forest-falcon was moved into the new Subfamily Herpetotherinae, and the Subfamily Caracarinae was removed, with crested caracara moved to the Subfamily Falconinae. In the Fringillidae (finches and allies), the Hawaiian fringillids were moved from the Subfamily Drepanidinae to Carduelinae. The Old World flycatchers in the Turdidae (thrushes) were moved to the Muscicapidae (Old World flycatchers). Bananaquit was moved from the Coerebidae (a family not protected by MBTA) to the Thraupidae (tanagers and allies), which is a family protected by the MBTA. All other tanagers were also moved from the Emberizidae (sparrows) to the Thraupidae. Within Thraupidae, the seedeaters were moved into the Subfamily Sporophilinae, and bananaquit, grassquits, and bullfinches were moved into the Subfamily Coerebinae.

All species previously receiving protection under the MBTA that have been moved to newly created Families continue to be protected under the MBTA.

The proposed amendments (66 additions, 7 removals, and 154 name changes) would affect a total of 204 species and would result in a net addition of 59 species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the number of species on the list from 1,026 to

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1,085. Of the 66 species that we would add to the list, 26 were previously covered under the MBTA as members of the same species (conspecific) of listed species. These proposed amendments can be logically arranged in the following nine categories:

(1) Add 17 species that qualify for protection by the MBTA but have not been added previously. The addition of these species is the result of either accepting AOS taxonomic updates that were previously excluded or determinations of documented natural occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories. The species and relevant publication(s) are:

Pink-footed Goose, Anser brachyrhynchus (AOU 1983);

Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii (AOU 2003);

European Turtle-Dove, Streptopelia turtur (AOU 2007);

Long-tailed Koel, Urodynamis taitensis (Wiles 2005);

White-tailed Nightjar, Hydropsalis cayennensis (AOU 1983);

Vervain Hummingbird, Mellisuga minima (AOU 1983);

Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus (Enbring and Owen 1981);

Common Redshank, Tringa totanus (Wiles 2005);

Nazca Booby, Sula granti (AOU 2000);

Abbott's Booby, Papasula abbotti (Pratt et al. 2009);

Rufous Night-Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus (Glass et al. 1990);

Gray-faced Buzzard, Butastur indicus (Stinson et al. 1997);

Eastern Marsh-Harrier, Circus spilonotus (Wiles et al. 2000);

Amur Falcon, Falco amurensis (Stinson et al. 1991);

Eurasian Jackdaw, Corvus monedula (AOU 1998);

Redwing, Turdus iliacus (AOU 1983);

Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis (Wiles et al. 1993).

(2) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the alphabetized list:

Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal

Red-footed falcon, Flaco vespertinus, becomes Falco vespertinus

Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius

(3) Correct the spelling of three common or scientific names on the taxonomic list:

Eared Quetzel, Euptilotis neoxenus, becomes Eared Quetzal

White-crested Eleania, Elaenia albiceps becomes White-crested Elaenia

Piratic Flycatcher, Legatus leucophalus becomes Legatus leucophaius

(4) Add 22 species based on review and acceptance by the AOS (since 2010) or by other appropriate ornithological authorities of new distributional records documenting their occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories. These species belong to families covered by at least one of the four international conventions, and all are considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For each species, we list the State in which it has been recorded plus the relevant publication:

Common Scoter, Melanitta nigra--California and Oregon (AOS 2017);

Amethyst-throated Hummingbird, Lampornis amethystinus--Texas (AOS 2018);

Rufous-necked Wood-Rail, Aramides axillaris--New Mexico (AOU 2016);

Solitary Snipe, Gallinago solitaria--Alaska (AOU 2011);

Chatham Albatross, Thalassarche eremita--California (AOS 2017);

Providence Petrel, Pterodroma solandri--Alaska (AOU 2013);

Fea's Petrel, Pterodroma feae--North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia (AOU 2013);

Zino's Petrel, Pterodroma madeira--North Carolina, (AOU 2015);

White-chinned Petrel, Procellaria aequinoctialis--Texas, California, Maine (AOU 2011);

Bryan's Shearwater, Puffinus bryani--Hawaii (AOU 2012);

Bare-throated Tiger-Heron, Tigrisoma mexicanum--Texas (AOU 2011);

Double-toothed Kite, Harpagus bidentatus--Texas (AOU 2013);

Amazon Kingfisher, Chloroceryle amazona--Texas (AOU 2011);

Gray-collared Becard, Pachyramphus major--Arizona (AOU 2011);

Pine Flycatcher, Empidonax affinis--Arizona (AOS 2018);

Cuban Vireo, Vireo gundlachii--Florida (AOS 2018);

Common Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita--Alaska (AOU 2014);

Blyth's Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum--Alaska (AOU 2017);

Common Redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus--Alaska (AOU 2015);

Brown-backed Solitaire, Myadestes occidentalis--Arizona (AOU 2011);

Asian Rosy-Finch, Leucosticte arctoa--Alaska (AOU 2013);

Red-legged Honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus--Texas (AOS 2017).

(5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes transferring a species in a Family formerly not protected by the MBTA (Coerebidae) into a Family protected under the MBTA (Thraupidae). We reference the AOU publication supporting the change: Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola, (AOU 2015).

(6) Add 26 species because of recent taxonomic changes in which taxa formerly treated as conspecific have been determined to be distinct species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated as conspecific with a listed species, these additions would not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, we reference the AOS or relevant publication supporting the change:

Ridgway's Rail, Rallus obsoletus--formerly considered conspecific with Clapper Rail, Rallus longirostris (AOU 2014);

Common Gallinule, Gallinula galeata--formerly considered conspecific with Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (AOU 2011);

Scripps's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus scrippsi--formerly considered conspecific with Xantus's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (AOU 2012);

Salvin's Albatross, Thalassarche salvini--formerly considered conspecific with Shy Albatross, Thalassarche cauta (AOU 2014);

Trindade Petrel, Pterodroma arminjoniana --formerly considered conspecific with Herald Petrel, Pterodroma heraldica (AOU 2015);

Newell's Shearwater, Puffinus newelli--formerly considered conspecific with Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015);

Barolo Shearwater, Puffinus baroli--formerly considered conspecific with Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2013);

Townsend's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma socorroensis--formerly considered conspecific with Leach's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma leucorhoa (AOU 2016);

Northern Boobook, Ninox japonica--formerly considered conspecific with Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);

Pacific Kingfisher, Todiramphus sacer--formerly considered conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015);

Mariana Kingfisher, Todiramphus albicilla--formerly considered conspecific with Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015);

Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma woodhouseii--formerly considered conspecific with Western Scrub-Jay, Aphelocoma californica (AOU 2016);

Kamchatka Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus examinandus--formerly considered conspecific with Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis (AOU 2014);

Saipan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus hiwae--formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013);

Aguiguan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus nijoi--formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013);

Pagan Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus yamashinae--formerly considered conspecific with Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinius (Clements et al. 2013);

Laysan Honeycreeper, Himatione fraithii-- formerly considered conspecific with Apapane, Himatione sanguinea (AOU 2015)

Kauai Nukupurevapsu, Hemignathus hanapepe--formerly considered conspecific with Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);

Maui Nukupurevapsu, Hemignathus affins--formerly considered conspecific with

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Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus (AOU 2015);

Kauai revapsAkialoa, Akialoa stejnegeri--formerly considered conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);

Maui Nui revapsAkialoa, Akialoa lanaiensis--formerly considered conspecific with Greater Akialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (AOU 2015);

Orevapsahu revapsAkepa, Loxops wolstenholmei--formerly considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);

Maui revapsAkepa, Loxops ochraceus--formerly considered conspecific with Akepa, Loxops coccineus (AOU 2015);

Cassia Crossbill, Loxia sinesciuris--formerly considered conspecific with Red Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra (AOS 2017);

Sagebrush Sparrow, Artemisiospiza nevadensis--formerly considered conspecific with Sage Sparrow, Amphispiza belli (AOU 2013);

Morelet's Seedeater, Sporophila morelleti--formerly considered conspecific with White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018).

(7) Remove seven species based on revised taxonomic treatments, either because a species is taxonomically merged with another species, either on or off the list; a species previously on the list is taxonomically split into multiple species and the new species is not known to occur within the United States or U.S. territories; or the species is considered extinct (following the classification of the AOS or, for species not covered by the AOS, the Clements checklist or peer-

reviewed literature) unless any of the following criteria apply: It is protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES; 27 U.S.T. 1087); it resembles extant species included in the list that may be affected by its removal; or its removal would create difficulties implementing the MBTA and its underlying Conventions. In each case, we reference the publication supporting these changes:

Thayer's Gull, Larus thayeri, now a subspecies of Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides (AOS 2017);

Townsend's Shearwater, Puffinus auricularis (AOU 2015);

Little Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis (AOU 2015);

Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata (AOU 2014);

Caribbean Coot, Fulica caribaea (AOU 2016);

Collared Kingfisher, Todiramphus chloris (Clements et al. 2015);

White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola (AOS 2018).

(8) Revise the common (English) names of 40 species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, and Clements et al. (2017). Hawaiian species names are modified to official Hawaiian spelling, following the Pukui-Elbert Hawaiian Dictionary, adding the diacritical marks to the common names where applicable. The Government Publishing Office Style Manual requires the words Hawaii and Kauai to be spelled without the diacritical mark. These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update is described in the table, below.

(9) Revise the scientific names of 114 species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment as described in AOU publications 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, AOS 2017, AOS 2018, and Clements et al. (2017). These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, the update is described in the table, below.

Table of Proposed Name Changes, as described in categories 8 and 9, above. Table is organized following AOS (2017) taxonomic order. The relevant AOS publication is provided. Hawaiian common name changes are indicated with a (--).


Previous common Current common

Publication source and year name name


AOU 2004........................ Canada Goose Canada Goose,

(including Branta Branta

hutchinsii), canadensis.

Branta canadensis.

AOU 2016........................ Green Violetear, Mexican Violetear,

Colibri Colibri

thalassinus. thalassinus.

AOS 2017........................ Magnificent Rivoli's

hummingbird, Hummingbird,

Eugenes fulgens. Eugenes fulgens.

AOU 2012........................ Xantus's Murrelet, Guadalupe

Synthliboramphus Murrelet,

hypoleucus. Synthliboramphus


AOU 2014........................ Shy Albatross, White-capped

Thalassarche Albatross,

cauta. Thalassarche


AOU 2015........................ Herald Petrel, Trindade Petrel,

Pterodroma Pterodroma

arminjoniana. arminjoniana.

Clements et al. 2000............ Pacific Reef- Pacific Reef-

Egret, Egretta Heron, Egretta

sacra. sacra.

AOU 2012........................ Gray Frog-Hawk, Chinese

Accipiter Sparrowhawk,

soloensis. Accipiter


AOU 2014........................ Common Black-Hawk, Common Black Hawk,

Buteogallus Buteogallus

anthracinus. anthracinus.

AOS 2018........................ Gray Jay, Canada Jay,

Perisoreus Perisoreus

canadensis. canadensis.

AOU 2016........................ Western Scrub-Jay, California Scrub-

Aphelocoma Jay, Aphelocoma

californica. californica.

AOU 2016........................ Eurasian Sky Lark, Eurasian Skylark,

Alauda arvensis. Alauda arvensis.

AOU 2014........................ Pallas's Leaf- Pallas's Leaf

Warbler, Warbler,

Phylloscopus Phylloscopus

proregulus. proregulus.

--.............................. Kamao, Myadestes Katildema`o,

myadestinus. Myadestes


--.............................. Olomao, Myadestes Oloma`o, Myadestes

lanaiensis. lanaiensis.

--.............................. Omao, Myadestes `Otildema'o,

obscurus. Myadestes


AOS 2017........................ Le Conte's LeConte's

Thrasher, Thrasher,

Toxostoma Toxostoma

lecontei. lecontei.

AOU 2015........................ Nukupuu, O`ahu Nukupu`u,

Hemignathus Hemignathus

lucidus. lucidus.

--.............................. Poo-uli, Po`ouli,

Melamprosops Melamprosops

phaeosoma. phaeosoma.

--.............................. Akikiki, `Akikiki,

Oreomystis bairdi. Oreomystis


--.............................. Oahu Alauahio, O`ahu `Alauahio,

Paroreomyza Paroreomyza

maculata. maculata.

--.............................. Kakawahie, Katildekatilde

Paroreomyza wahie,

flammea. Paroreomyza


--.............................. Maui Alauahio, Maui `Alauahio,

Paroreomyza Paroreomyza

montana. montana.

--.............................. Akohekohe, `Akohekohe,

Palmeria dolei. Palmeria dolei.

--.............................. Apapane, Himatione `Apapane,

sanguinea. Himatione


--.............................. Iiwi, Drepanis `I`iwi, Drepanis

coccinea. coccinea.

--.............................. Ou, Psittirostra `Otilde`utilde

psittacea. , Psittirostra


--.............................. Anianiau, Magumma `Anianiau, Magumma

parva. parva.

--.............................. Akekee, Loxops `Akeke`e, Loxops

caeruleirostris. caeruleirostris.

AOU 2015........................ Akepa, Loxops Hawaii `Akepa,

coccineus. Loxops coccineus.

AOS 2017........................ Le Conte's LeConte's Sparrow,

Sparrow, Ammodramus

Ammodramus leconteii.


AOS 2017........................ Emperor Goose, Emperor Goose,

Chen canagica. Anser canagicus.

AOS 2017........................ Snow Goose, Chen Snow Goose, Anser

caerulescens. caerulescens.

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AOS 2017........................ Ross's Goose, Chen Ross's Goose,

rossii. Anser rossii.

AOS 2017........................ Baikal Teal, Anas Baikal Teal,

formosa. Sibirionetta


AOS 2017........................ Garganey, Anas Garganey, Spatula

querquedula. querquedula.

AOS 2017........................ Blue-winged Teal, Blue-winged Teal,

Anas discors. Spatula discors.

AOS 2017........................ Cinnamon Teal, Cinnamon Teal,

Anas cyanoptera. Spatula


AOS 2017........................ Northern Shoveler, Northern Shoveler,

Anas clypeata. Spatula clypeata.

AOS 2017........................ Gadwall, Anas Gadwall, Mareca

strepera. strepera.

AOS 2017........................ Falcated Duck, Falcated Duck,

Anas falcata. Mareca falcata.

AOS 2017........................ Eurasian Wigeon, Eurasian Wigeon,

Anas penelope. Mareca penelope.

AOS 2017........................ American Wigeon, American Wigeon,

Anas americana. Mareca americana.

Clements et al. 2017............ White-throated White-throated

Ground-Dove, Ground-Dove,

Gallicolumba Alopecoenas

xanthonura. xanthonura.

Clements et al. 2010............ Hodgson's Hawk- Hodgson's Hawk-

Cuckoo, Cuculus Cuckoo,

fugax. Hierococcyx


AOU 2012........................ Chuck-will's- Chuck-will's-

widow, widow,

Caprimulgus Antrostomus

carolinensis. carolinensis.

AOU 2012........................ Buff-collared Buff-collared

Nightjar, Nightjar,

Caprimulgus Antrostomus

ridgwayi. ridgwayi.

AOU 2012........................ Eastern Whip-poor- Eastern Whip-poor-

will, Caprimulgus will, Antrostomus

vociferus. vociferus.

AOU 2012........................ Mexican Whip-poor- Mexican Whip-poor-

will, Caprimulgus will, Antrostomus

arizonae. arizonae.

AOU 2012........................ Puerto Rican Puerto Rican

Nightjar, Nightjar,

Caprimulgus Antrostomus

noctitherus. noctitherus.

AOS 2018........................ Gray Nightjar, Gray Nightjar,

Caprimulgus Caprimulgus

indicus. jotaka.

AOU 2012........................ Calliope Calliope

Hummingbird, Hummingbird,

Stellula calliope. Selasphorus


AOU 2014........................ Clapper Rail, Clapper Rail,

Rallus Rallus crepitans.


AOU 2016........................ Yellow-breasted Yellow-breasted

Crake, Porzana Crake, Hapalocrex

flaviventer. flaviventer.

AOU 2012........................ Purple Gallinule, Purple Gallinule,

Porphyrio Porphyrio

martinica. martinicus.

AOU 2016........................ Sandhill Crane, Sandhill Crane,

Grus canadensis. Antigone


AOU 2011........................ Snowy Plover, Snowy Plover,

Charadrius Charadrius

alexandrinus. nivosus.

AOU 2013........................ Surfbird, Aphriza Surfbird, Calidris

virgata. virgata.

AOU 2013........................ Ruff, Philomachus Ruff, Calidris

pugnax. pugnax.

AOU 2013........................ Broad-billed Broad-billed

Sandpiper, Sandpiper,

Limicola Calidris

falcinellus. falcinellus.

AOU 2013........................ Spoon-billed Spoon-billed

Sandpiper, Sandpiper,

Eurynorhynchus Calidris pygmea.


AOU 2013........................ Buff-breasted Buff-breasted

Sandpiper, Sandpiper,

Tryngites Calidris

subruficollis. subruficollis.

AOS 2017........................ Blue-gray Noddy, Blue-gray Noddy,

Procelsterna Anous ceruleus.


AOU 2003........................ Whiskered Tern, Whiskered Tern,

Chlidonias Chlidonias

hybridus. hybrida.

AOS 2018........................ Tahiti Petrel, Tahiti Petrel,

Pterodroma Pseudobulweria

rostrata. rostrata.

AOU 2016........................ Wedge-tailed Wedge-tailed

Shearwater, Shearwater,

Puffinus Ardenna pacifica.


AOU 2016........................ Buller's Buller's

Shearwater, Shearwater,

Puffinus bulleri. Ardenna bulleri.

AOU 2016........................ Short-tailed Short-tailed

Shearwater, Shearwater,

Puffinus Ardenna

tenuirostris. tenuirostris.

AOU 2016........................ Sooty Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater,

Puffinus griseus. Ardenna grisea.

AOU 2016........................ Great Shearwater, Great Shearwater,

Puffinus gravis. Ardenna gravis.

AOU 2016........................ Pink-footed Pink-footed

Shearwater, Shearwater,

Puffinus Ardenna

creatopus. creatopus.

AOU 2016........................ Flesh-footed Flesh-footed

Shearwater, Shearwater,

Puffinus Ardenna

carneipes. carneipes.

AOS 2017........................ Intermediate Intermediate

Egret, Mesophoyx Egret, Ardea

intermedia. intermedia.

AOS 2017........................ Northern Harrier, Northern Harrier,

Circus cyaneus. Circus hudsonius.

AOU 2015........................ Roadside Hawk, Roadside Hawk,

Buteo Rupornis

magnirostris. magnirostris.

AOU 2015........................ White-tailed Hawk, White-tailed Hawk,

Buteo Geranoaetus

albicaudatus. albicaudatus.

AOS 2018........................ Downy Woodpecker, Downy Woodpecker,

Picoides Dryobates

pubescens. pubescens.

AOS 2018........................ Nuttall's Nuttall's

Woodpecker, Woodpecker,

Picoides Dryobates

nuttallii. nuttallii.

AOS 2018........................ Ladder-backed Ladder-backed

Woodpecker, Woodpecker,

Picoides scalaris. Dryobates


AOS 2018........................ Red-cockaded Red-cockaded

Woodpecker, Woodpecker,

Picoides borealis. Dryobates


AOS 2018........................ Hairy Woodpecker, Hairy Woodpecker,

Picoides villosus. Dryobates


AOS 2018........................ White-headed White-headed

Woodpecker, Woodpecker,

Picoides Dryobates

albolarvatus. albolarvatus.

AOS 2018........................ Arizona Arizona

Woodpecker, Woodpecker,

Picoides arizonae. Dryobates


AOU 2013........................ Flammulated Owl, Flammulated Owl,

Otus flammeolus. Psiloscops


AOS 2017........................ Northern Shrike, Northern Shrike,

Lanius excubitor. Lanius borealis.

AOU 2011........................ Mexican Jay, Mexican Jay,

Aphelocoma Aphelocoma

ultramarina. wollweberi.

AOU 2012........................ Sinaloa Wren, Sinaloa Wren,

Thryothorus Thryophilus

sinaloa. sinaloa.

AOS 2018........................ Siberian Blue Siberian Blue

Robin, Luscinia Robin, Larvivora

cyane. cyane.

AOS 2018........................ Rufous-tailed Rufous-tailed

Robin, Luscinia Robin, Larvivora

sibilans. sibilans.

AOS 2018........................ Bluethroat, Bluethroat,

Luscinia svecica. Cyanecula


AOS 2018........................ Siberian Siberian

Rubythroat, Rubythroat,

Luscinia calliope. Calliope


Clements et al. 2015............ Chestnut-cheeked Chestnut-cheeked

Starling, Sturnus Starling,

phillippensis. Agropsar


Clements et al. 2015............ White-cheeked White-cheeked

Starling, Sturnus Starling,

cineraceus. Spodiopsar


AOU 2013........................ Gray Silky- Gray Silky-

flycatcher, flycatcher,

Ptilogonys Ptiliogonys

cinereus. cinereus.

AOU 2012........................ House Finch, House Finch,

Carpodacus Haemorhous

mexicanus. mexicanus.

AOU 2012........................ Purple Finch, Purple Finch,

Carpodacus Haemorhous

purpureus. purpureus.

AOU 2012........................ Cassin's Finch, Cassin's Finch,

Carpodacus Haemorhous

cassinii. cassinii.

AOU 2015........................ American Tree American Tree

Sparrow, Spizella Sparrow,

arborea. Spizelloides


AOS 2018........................ Baird's Sparrow, Baird's Sparrow,

Ammodramus Centronyx

bairdii. bairdii.

AOS 2018........................ Henslow's Sparrow, Henslow's Sparrow,

Ammodramus Centronyx

henslowii. henslowii.

AOS 2018........................ LeConte's Sparrow, LeConte's Sparrow,

Ammodramus Ammospiza

leconteii. leconteii.

AOS 2018........................ Seaside Sparrow, Seaside Sparrow,

Ammodramus Ammospiza

maritima. maritima.

AOS 2018........................ Nelson's Sparrow, Nelson's Sparrow,

Ammodramus Ammospiza

nelsoni. nelsoni.

AOS 2018........................ Saltmarsh Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sparrow,

Ammodramus Ammospiza

caudacuta. caudacuta.

AOU 2011........................ MacGillivray's MacGillivray's

Warbler, Warbler,

Oporornis tolmiei. Geothlypis


AOU 2011........................ Mourning Warbler, Mourning Warbler,

Oporornis Geothlypis

philadelphia. philadelphia.

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AOU 2011........................ Kentucky Warbler, Kentucky Warbler,

Oporornis Geothlypis

formosus. formosa.

AOU 2011........................ Elfin-woods Elfin-woods

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica angelae. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Hooded Warbler, Hooded Warbler,

Wilsonia citrina. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Kirtland's Kirtland's

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

kirtlandii. kirtlandii.

AOU 2011........................ Cape May Warbler, Cape May Warbler,

Dendroica tigrina. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Cerulean Warbler, Cerulean Warbler,

Dendroica cerulea. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Northern Parula, Northern Parula,

Parula americana. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Tropical Parula, Tropical Parula,

Parula pitiayumi. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Magnolia Warbler, Magnolia Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

magnolia. magnolia.

AOU 2011........................ Bay-breasted Bay-breasted

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

castanea. castanea.

AOU 2011........................ Blackburnian Blackburnian

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica fusca. Setophaga fusca.

AOU 2011........................ Yellow Warbler, Yellow Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

petechia. petechia.

AOU 2011........................ Chestnut-sided Chestnut-sided

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

pensylvanica. pensylvanica.

AOU 2011........................ Blackpoll Warbler, Blackpoll Warbler,

Dendroica striata. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Black-throated Black-throated

Blue Warbler, Blue Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

caerulescens. caerulescens.

AOU 2011........................ Palm Warbler, Palm Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

palmarum. palmarum.

AOU 2011........................ Pine Warbler, Pine Warbler,

Dendroica pinus. Setophaga pinus.

AOU 2011........................ Yellow-rumped Yellow-rumped

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

coronata. coronata.

AOU 2011........................ Yellow-throated Yellow-throated

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

dominica. dominica.

AOU 2011........................ Prairie Warbler, Prairie Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

discolor. discolor.

AOU 2011........................ Adelaide's Adelaide's

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

adelaidae. adelaidae.

AOU 2011........................ Grace's Warbler, Grace's Warbler,

Dendroica graciae. Setophaga


AOU 2011........................ Black-throated Black-throated

Gray Warbler, Gray Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

nigrescens. nigrescens.

AOU 2011........................ Townsend's Townsend's

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

townsendi. townsendi.

AOU 2011........................ Hermit Warbler, Hermit Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

occidentalis. occidentalis.

AOU 2011........................ Golden-cheeked Golden-cheeked

Warbler, Warbler,

Dendroica Setophaga

chrysoparia. chrysoparia.

AOU 2011........................ Black-throated Black-throated

Green Warbler, Green Warbler,

Dendroica virens. Setophaga virens.

AOU 2011........................ Fan-tailed Fan-tailed

Warbler, Warbler,

Euthlypis Basileuterus

lachrymosa. lachrymosus.

AOU 2011........................ Canada Warbler, Canada Warbler,

Wilsonia Cardellina

canadensis. canadensis.

AOU 2011........................ Wilson's Warbler, Wilson's Warbler,

Wilsonia pusilla. Cardellina


Clements et al. 2017............ Friendly Ground- Shy Ground-Dove,

Dove, Alopecoenas

Gallicolumba stairi.


Clements et al. 2006............ Micronesian Guam Kingfisher,

Kingfisher, Todiramphus

Todirhamphus cinnamominus.


Clements et al. 2006, 2017...... Nightingale Reed- Nightingale Reed

Warbler, Warbler,

Acrocephalus Acrocephalus

luscinia. luscinius.

AOU 2015........................ Akiapolaau, `Akiapola`au,

Hemignathus Hemignathus

munroi. wilsoni.

AOU 2015........................ Greater Akialoa, O`ahu `Akialoa,

Hemignathus Akialoa

ellisianus. ellisiana.

AOU 2015........................ Hawaii Amakihi, Hawaii `Amakihi,

Hemignathus Chlorodrepanis

virens. virens.

AOU 2015........................ Oahu Amakihi, O`ahu `Amakihi,

Hemignathus Chlorodrepanis

flavus. flava.

AOU 2015........................ Kauai Amakihi, Kauai `Amakihi,

Hemignathus Chlorodrepanis

kauaiensis. stejnegeri.

AOU 2012, 2013.................. Sage Sparrow, Bell's Sparrow,

Amphispiza belli. Artemisiospiza



How is the list of migratory birds organized?

The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of different segments of the public: alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the English group name. This format, similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOS (1998, 2017) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists.

What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

The MBTA does not apply to:

(1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or U.S. territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions. Elsewhere in today's Federal Register, we publish a notice of availability of the draft revised list of nonnative bird species that are not protected under the MBTA. Note, though, that native species that are introduced into parts of the United States where they are not native are still protected under the MBTA regardless of where they occur in the United States or U.S. territories.

(2) Species native or nonnative to the United States or U.S. territories that either belong to families or groups not referred to in the Canada, Mexico, and Russia Conventions or are not included by species name in the Japan Convention. This includes the Tinamidae (tinamous), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Cracidae (chachalacas), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Pteroclidae (sandgrouse), Heliornithidae (finfoots), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Todidae (todies), Psittacidae (parrots), Psittaculidae (Old World parrots), Meliphagidae (honeyeaters), Dicruridae (drongos), Monarchidae (monarchs), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Scotocercidae (bush warblers and allies), Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings, except as listed in Japanese treaty), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and Passeridae (Old World sparrows, including house or English sparrow), as well as numerous other families not represented in the United States or U.S. territories.

Public Comments

Any final action resulting from this proposed rule must be based on the best scientific and commercial data available and be as accurate and as effective as possible. We request comments or information from other concerned governmental agencies, the scientific community, industry, or any other

Page 61294

interested parties concerning this proposed rule.

Please include sufficient information with your submission (such as electronic copies of scientific journal articles or other publications, preferably in English) to allow us to verify any scientific or commercial information you include.

You may submit your comments and materials concerning this proposed rule by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. We request that you send comments only by the methods described in ADDRESSES.

If you submit information via, your entire submission--including any personal identifying information--will be posted on the website. If your submission is made via a hardcopy that includes personal identifying information, you may request at the top of your document that we withhold this information from public review. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. We will post all hardcopy submissions on

Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be available for public inspection on, or by appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review

Executive Order (E.O.) 12866 provides that the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management and Budget will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that this proposed rule is not significant.

E.O. 13563 reaffirms the principles of E.O. 12866, while calling for improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. E.O. 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent with regulatory objectives. E.O. 13563 emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open exchange of ideas. We have developed this proposed rule in a manner consistent with these requirements.

Executive Order 13771--Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs

This proposed rule is not an Executive Order (E.O.) 13771 (82 FR 9339, February 3, 2017) regulatory action because this proposed rule is not significant under E.O. 12866.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of 1996 (5 U.S.C. 804(2)), whenever an agency is required to publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., small businesses, small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of an agency certifies the rule does not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.

SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. We have examined this proposed rule's potential effects on small entities as required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that, if adopted as proposed, this action would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. This rule is an administrative action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions. Consequently, we certify that, if adopted as proposed, this rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities; therefore, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required.

This proposed rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 804(2)). It would not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities.

  1. This proposed rule would not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more.

  2. This proposed rule would not cause a major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local government agencies, or geographic regions.

  3. This proposed rule would not have significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based enterprises.

    Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.), we have determined the following:

  4. This proposed rule would not ``significantly or uniquely'' affect small governments. A small government agency plan is not required. This proposed rule is an administrative action to update the list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions; it would not affect small government activities in any significant way.

  5. This proposed rule would not produce a Federal mandate of $100 million or greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.


    In accordance with Executive Order 12630, this proposed rule does not have significant takings implications. This proposed rule does not contain a provision for taking of private property. Therefore, a takings implication assessment is not required.


    This proposed rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to warrant preparation of a federalism summary impact statement under Executive Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States' ability to manage themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts are expected to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird species.

    Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the Solicitor has determined that this proposed rule does not unduly burden the judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of the Order.

    Paperwork Reduction Act

    This proposed rule does not contain information collection requirements, and a submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) is not required. We may not conduct or sponsor and you are not required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number.

    Page 61295

    National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Given that the proposed revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly administrative in nature and will have no or minor environmental effects, it is categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements (43 CFR 46.210(i)).

    Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Of the species on the List of Migratory Birds, 84 species, subspecies, or distinct population segments are also listed as endangered or threatened under section 4 of the ESA of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). No legal complications arise from the dual listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities and for different purposes. Because this proposed rule is strictly administrative in nature, it has no effect on endangered or threatened species. Thus, it does not require consultation under section 7 of the ESA.

    Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes and have determined that there are no potential effects. The proposed revisions to existing regulations in this rule are purely administrative in nature and do not interfere with the tribes' ability to manage themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird activities on tribal lands.

    Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211)

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. Because this proposed rule would only affect the listing of protected species in the United States, it is not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is required.

    Clarity of the Proposed Rule

    We are required by Executive Orders 12866 and 12988 and by the Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain language. This means that each rule we publish must:

    (1) Be logically organized;

    (2) Use the active voice to address readers directly;

    (3) Use clear language rather than jargon;

    (4) Be divided into short sections and sentences; and

    (5) Use lists and tables wherever possible.

    If you feel that we have not met these requirements, send us comments by one of the methods listed in ADDRESSES. To better help us revise the rule, your comments should be as specific as possible. For example, you should tell us the numbers of the sections or paragraphs that are unclearly written, which sections or sentences are too long, the sections where you feel lists or tables would be useful, etc.

    References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited is available on under Docket No. FWS-HQ-MB-2018-0047, and upon request (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT, above).

    List of Subjects in Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, Wildlife.

    Proposed Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we propose to amend title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, part 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as follows:



    1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 16 U.S.C. 668a-d, 703-712, 742a-j-l, 1361-1384, 1401-

      1407, 1531-1543, 3371-3378; 18 U.S.C. 42; 19 U.S.C. 1202.


    2. Amend Sec. thinsp10.13 by revising paragraph (c) to read as follows:

      Sec. 10.13 List of Migratory Birds.

      * * * * *

      (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's (AOU, now recognized as American Ornithological Society (AOS)) Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended through 2018). For species not treated by the AOS Check-list, we generally follow Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements et al. 2017).

      (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the common name.

      ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella

      `AKEKE`E, Loxops caeruleirostris

      `AKEPA, Hawaii, Loxops coccineus

      Maui, Loxops ochraceus

      O`ahu, Loxops wolstenholmei

      `AKIALOA, Kauai, Akialoa stejnegeri

      Maui Nui, Akialoa lanaiensis

      O`ahu, Akialoa ellisiana

      `AKIAPOLA`AU, Hemignathus wilsoni

      `AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi

      `AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei

      `ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana

      O`ahu, Paroreomyza maculata

      ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris

      Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes

      Chatham, Thalassarche eremita

      Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis

      Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata

      Salvin's, Thalassarche salvini

      Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus

      Wandering, Diomedea exulans

      White-capped, Thalassarche cauta

      Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos

      `AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Chlorodrepanis virens

      Kauai, Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri

      O`ahu, Chlorodrepanis flava

      ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga

      ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris

      Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani

      `ANIANIAU, Magumma parva

      `APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea

      AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus

      Crested, Aethia cristatella

      Least, Aethia pusilla

      Parakeet, Aethia psittacula

      Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata

      Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea

      AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana

      BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola

      BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis

      Tundra, Anser serrirostris

      BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe

      BECARD, Gray-collared, Pachyramphus major

      Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae

      BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus

      Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis

      Least, Ixobrychus exilis

      Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus

      Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis

      BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus

      Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus

      Rusty, Euphagus carolinus

      Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis

      Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor

      Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus

      Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus

      BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis

      Mountain, Sialia currucoides

      Western, Sialia mexicana

      BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus

      BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula svecica

      Page 61296

      BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus

      BOOBOOK, Northern, Ninox japonica

      BOOBY, Abbott's, Papasula abbotti

      Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii

      Brown, Sula leucogaster

      Masked, Sula dactylatra

      Nazca, Sula granti

      Red-footed, Sula sula

      BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla

      BRANT, Branta bernicla

      BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola

      BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula

      Puerto Rican, Melopyrrha portoricensis

      BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina

      Gray, Emberiza variabilis

      Indigo, Passerina cyanea

      Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys

      Lazuli, Passerina amoena

      Little, Emberiza pusilla

      McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus

      Painted, Passerina ciris

      Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi

      Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos

      Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus

      Rustic, Emberiza rustica

      Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis

      Varied, Passerina versicolor

      Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola

      Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys

      Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans

      BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus

      BUZZARD, Gray-faced, Butastur indicus

      CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria

      CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway

      CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis

      CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus

      Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis

      CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris

      Gray, Dumetella carolinensis

      CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs

      CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens

      CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus

      Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus

      Carolina, Poecile carolinensis

      Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens

      Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus

      Mexican, Poecile sclateri

      Mountain, Poecile gambeli

      CHIFFCHAFF, Common, Phylloscopus collybita

      CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Antrostomus carolinensis

      CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus

      COOT, American, Fulica americana

      Eurasian, Fulica atra

      Hawaiian, Fulica alai

      CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus

      Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus

      Great, Phalacrocorax carbo

      Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos

      Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus

      Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus

      Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile

      COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus

      Brown-headed, Molothrus ater

      Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis

      CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex

      Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops

      Spotless, Porzana tabuensis

      Yellow-breasted, Hapalocrex flaviventer

      CRANE, Common, Grus grus

      Sandhill, Antigone canadensis

      Whooping, Grus americana

      CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana

      Hawaii, Loxops mana

      CROSSBILL, Cassia, Loxia sinesciuris

      Red, Loxia curvirostra

      White-winged, Loxia leucoptera

      CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos

      Fish, Corvus ossifragus

      Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis

      Mariana, Corvus kubaryi

      Northwestern, Corvus caurinus

      Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus

      White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus

      CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus

      Common, Cuculus canorus

      Mangrove, Coccyzus minor

      Oriental, Cuculus optatus

      Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus

      CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis

      Eskimo, Numenius borealis

      Eurasian, Numenius arquata

      Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis

      Little, Numenius minutus

      Long-billed, Numenius americanus

      DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana

      DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus

      DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus

      DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca

      Mourning, Zenaida macroura

      White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi

      White-winged, Zenaida asiatica

      Zenaida, Zenaida aurita

      DOVEKIE, Alle alle

      DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus

      Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus

      DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes

      Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha

      Falcated, Mareca falcata

      Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus

      Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana

      Laysan, Anas laysanensis

      Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis

      Masked, Nomonyx dominicus

      Mottled, Anas fulvigula

      Muscovy, Cairina moschata

      Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa

      Ring-necked, Aythya collaris

      Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis

      Tufted, Aythya fuligula

      Wood, Aix sponsa

      DUNLIN, Calidris alpina

      EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus

      Golden, Aquila chrysaetos

      White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla

      EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis

      Chinese, Egretta eulophotes

      Great, Ardea alba

      Intermediate, Ardea intermedia

      Little, Egretta garzetta

      Reddish, Egretta rufescens

      Snowy, Egretta thula

      EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima

      King, Somateria spectabilis

      Spectacled, Somateria fischeri

      Steller's, Polysticta stelleri

      ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica

      Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata

      White-crested, Elaenia albiceps

      EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus

      EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica

      FALCON, Amur, Falco amurensis

      Aplomado, Falco femoralis

      Peregrine, Falco peregrinus

      Prairie, Falco mexicanus

      Red-footed, Falco vespertinus

      FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris

      FINCH, Cassin's, Haemorhous cassinii

      House, Haemorhous mexicanus

      Laysan, Telespiza cantans

      Nihoa, Telespiza ultima

      Purple, Haemorhous purpureus

      FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber

      FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides

      Northern, Colaptes auratus

      FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens

      Alder, Empidonax alnorum

      Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens

      Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica

      Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus

      Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons

      Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis

      Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus

      Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica

      Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri

      Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer

      Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana

      Gray, Empidonax wrightii

      Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta

      Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus

      Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii

      La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae

      Least, Empidonax minimus

      Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki

      Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina

      Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi

      Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi

      Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis

      Pine, Empidonax affinis

      Piratic, Legatus leucophaius

      Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum

      Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus

      Social, Myiozetetes similis

      Spotted, Muscicapa striata

      Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris

      Taiga, Ficedula albicilla

      Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus

      Variegated, Empidonomus varius

      Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus

      Willow, Empidonax traillii

      Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris

      FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus

      FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor

      Lesser, Fregata ariel

      Magnificent, Fregata magnificens

      FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus

      Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii

      Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla

      FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis

      GADWALL, Mareca strepera

      GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris

      Common, Gallinula galeata

      Purple, Porphyrio martinicus

      GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus

      GARGANEY, Spatula querquedula

      GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps

      Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura

      Blue-Gray, Polioptila caerulea

      California, Polioptila californica

      GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica

      Black-tailed, Limosa limosa

      Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica

      Marbled, Limosa fedoa

      Page 61297

      GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica

      Common, Bucephala clangula

      GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica

      European, Pluvialis apricaria

      Pacific, Pluvialis fulva

      GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis

      Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei

      Lesser, Spinus psaltria

      GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis

      Cackling, Branta hutchinsii

      Canada, Branta canadensis

      Emperor, Anser canagicus

      Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons

      Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis

      Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus

      Pink-footed, Anser brachyrhynchus

      Ross's, Anser rossii

      Snow, Anser caerulescens

      GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis

      GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major

      Common, Quiscalus quiscula

      Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger

      Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus

      GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis

      GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor

      Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus

      GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii

      Eared, Podiceps nigricollis

      Horned, Podiceps auritus

      Least, Tachybaptus dominicus

      Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps

      Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena

      Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis

      GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica

      GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia

      Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer

      GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus

      Blue, Passerina caerulea

      Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno

      Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus

      Pine, Pinicola enucleator

      Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus

      Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus

      GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina

      Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti

      Shy, Alopecoenas stairi

      White-throated, Alopecoenas xanthonura

      GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle

      Pigeon, Cepphus columba

      GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri

      Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus

      Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris

      Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia

      California, Larus californicus

      Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan

      Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus

      Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens

      Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus

      Great Black-backed, Larus marinus

      Heermann's, Larus heermanni

      Herring, Larus argentatus

      Iceland, Larus glaucoides

      Ivory, Pagophila eburnea

      Kelp, Larus dominicanus

      Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla

      Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus

      Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus

      Mew, Larus canus

      Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis

      Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea

      Sabine's, Xema sabini

      Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus

      Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus

      Western, Larus occidentalis

      Yellow-footed, Larus livens

      Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis

      GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus

      HARRIER, Northern, Circus hudsonius

      HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes

      HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus

      Common Black, Buteogallus anthracinus

      Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii

      Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens

      Ferruginous, Buteo regalis

      Gray, Buteo plagiatus

      Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus

      Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius

      Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus

      Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis

      Roadside, Rupornis magnirostris

      Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus

      Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus

      Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus

      Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni

      White-tailed, Geranoaetus albicaudatus

      Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus

      HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Hierococcyx nisicolor

      HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea

      Great Blue, Ardea herodias

      Green, Butorides virescens

      Little Blue, Egretta caerulea

      Tricolored, Egretta tricolor

      HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo

      HONEYCREEPER, Laysan, Himatione fraithii

      Red-legged, Cyanerpes cyaneus

      HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops

      HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum

      HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin

      Amethyst-throated, Lampornis amethystinus

      Anna's, Calypte anna

      Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus

      Berylline, Amazilia beryllina

      Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri

      Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae

      Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris

      Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus

      Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis

      Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa

      Calliope, Selasphorus calliope

      Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila

      Costa's, Calypte costae

      Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer

      Rivoli's, Eugenes fulgens

      Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris

      Rufous, Selasphorus rufus

      Vervain, Mellisuga minima

      Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps

      White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis

      Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii

      IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus

      Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber

      White, Eudocimus albus

      White-faced, Plegadis chihi

      `I`IWI, Drepanis coccinea

      IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica

      JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria

      JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa

      JACKDAW, Eurasian, Corvus monedula

      JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus

      Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus

      Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus

      JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata

      Brown, Psilorhinus morio

      Canada, Perisoreus canadensis

      Green, Cyanocorax yncas

      Mexican, Aphelocoma wollweberi

      Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus

      Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri

      JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis

      Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus

      KAmacrKAmacrWAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea

      KAmacrMA`O, Myadestes myadestinus

      KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius

      Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus

      KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus

      KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans

      Couch's, Tyrannus couchii

      Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus

      Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis

      Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus

      Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris

      Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus

      Western, Tyrannus verticalis

      KINGFISHER, Amazon, Chloroceryle amazona

      Belted, Megaceryle alcyon

      Common, Alcedo atthis

      Green, Chloroceryle americana

      Guam, Todiramphus cinnamominus

      Mariana, Todiramphus albicilla

      Pacific, Todiramphus sacer

      Ringed, Megaceryle torquata

      KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa

      Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula

      KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus

      KITE, Black, Milvus migrans

      Double-toothed, Harpagus bidentatus

      Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus

      Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis

      Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis

      Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus

      White-tailed, Elanus leucurus

      KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla

      Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris

      KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris

      Red, Calidris canutus

      KOEL, Long-tailed, Urodynamis taitensis

      LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus

      LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris

      LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna

      LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti

      LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus

      Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus

      McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii

      Smith's, Calcarius pictus

      LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica

      Common, Gavia immer

      Pacific, Gavia pacifica

      Red-throated, Gavia stellata

      Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii

      MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia

      Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli

      MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos

      MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus

      Green, Anthracothorax viridis

      Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii

      MARSH-HARRIER, Eastern, Circus spilonotus

      MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera

      Caribbean, Progne dominicensis

      Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca

      Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea

      Purple, Progne subis

      Southern, Progne elegans

      MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna

      Western, Sturnella neglecta

      Page 61298

      MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser

      Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus

      Red-breasted, Mergus serrator

      MERLIN, Falco columbarius

      MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris

      MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii

      Blue, Melanotis caerulescens

      Northern, Mimus polyglottos

      MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus

      MURRE, Common, Uria aalge

      Thick-billed, Uria lomvia

      MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus

      Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri

      Guadalupe, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus

      Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris

      Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix

      Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus

      Scripps's, Synthliboramphus scrippsi

      NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus

      NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii

      Common, Chordeiles minor

      Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis

      NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax

      Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi

      Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus

      Rufous, Nycticorax caledonicus

      Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea

      NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus

      Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris

      NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Antrostomus ridgwayi

      Gray, Caprimulgus jotaka

      Puerto Rican, Antrostomus noctitherus

      White-tailed, Hydropsalis cayennensis

      NODDY, Black, Anous minutus

      Blue-gray, Anous ceruleus

      Brown, Anous stolidus

      NUKUPU`U, Kauai, Hemignathus hanapepe

      Maui, Hemignathus affinis

      O`ahu, Hemignathus lucidus

      NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana

      NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla

      Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea

      Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis

      White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis

      OLOMA`O, Myadestes lanaiensis

      `OtildeMA'O, Myadestes obscurus

      ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis

      Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda

      Baltimore, Icterus galbula

      Black-vented, Icterus wagleri

      Bullock's, Icterus bullockii

      Hooded, Icterus cucullatus

      Orchard, Icterus spurius

      Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis

      Scott's, Icterus parisorum

      Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus

      OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus

      `Otilde`Utilde, Psittirostra psittacea

      OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla

      OWL, Barn, Tyto alba

      Barred, Strix varia

      Boreal, Aegolius funereus

      Burrowing, Athene cunicularia

      Elf, Micrathene whitneyi

      Flammulated, Psiloscops flammeolus

      Great Gray, Strix nebulosa

      Great Horned, Bubo virginianus

      Long-eared, Asio otus

      Mottled, Ciccaba virgata

      Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula

      Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus

      Short-eared, Asio flammeus

      Snowy, Bubo scandiacus

      Spotted, Strix occidentalis

      Stygian, Asio stygius

      OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus

      Black, Haematopus bachmani

      Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus

      PALILA, Loxioides bailleui

      PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia

      PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys

      PARULA, Northern, Setophaga americana

      Tropical, Setophaga pitiayumi

      PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis

      PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

      Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis

      PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow

      Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata

      Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis

      Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca

      Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii

      Cook's, Pterodroma cookii

      Fea's, Pterodroma feae

      Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera

      Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera

      Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis

      Herald, Pterodroma heraldica

      Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax

      Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa

      Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta

      Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata

      Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima

      Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni

      Phoenix, Pterodroma alba

      Providence, Pterodroma solandri

      Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris

      Tahiti, Pseudobulweria rostrata

      Trindade, Pterodroma arminjoniana

      White-chinned, Procellaria aequinoctialis

      White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis

      Zino's, Pterodroma madeira

      PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus

      Greater, Contopus pertinax

      Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis

      Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris

      PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens

      PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius

      Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus

      Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor

      PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans

      Eastern, Sayornis phoebe

      Say's, Sayornis saya

      PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata

      Plain, Patagioenas inornata

      Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris

      Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa

      White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala

      PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta

      White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis

      PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens

      Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni

      Pechora, Anthus gustavi

      Red-throated, Anthus cervinus

      Sprague's, Anthus spragueii

      Tree, Anthus trivialis

      PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola

      Collared, Charadrius collaris

      Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula

      Kentish, Charadrius alexandrinus

      Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius

      Mountain, Charadrius montanus

      Piping, Charadrius melodus

      Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus

      Snowy, Charadrius nivosus

      Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia

      POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri

      Common, Aythya ferina

      POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus

      POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii

      PO`OULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma

      PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri

      PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica

      Horned, Fratercula corniculata

      Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata

      PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum

      Northern, Glaucidium gnoma

      PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus

      QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea

      Key West, Geotrygon chrysia

      Ruddy, Geotrygon montana

      QUETZAL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus

      RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis

      Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis

      Clapper, Rallus crepitans

      Guam, Gallirallus owstoni

      King, Rallus elegans

      Ridgway's, Rallus obsoletus

      Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus

      Virginia, Rallus limicola

      Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis

      RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus

      Common, Corvus corax

      RAZORBILL, Alca torda

      REDHEAD, Aythya americana

      REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea

      Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni

      REDSHANK, Common, Tringa totanus

      Spotted, Tringa erythropus

      REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla

      Common, Phoenicurus phoenicurus

      Painted, Myioborus pictus

      Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus

      REDWING, Turdus iliacus

      REEF-HERON, Pacific, Egretta sacra

      Western, Egretta gularis

      ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus

      ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius

      Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus

      Rufous-tailed, Larvivora sibilans

      Siberian Blue, Larvivora cyane

      ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius

      ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus

      ROSY-FINCH, Asian, Leucosticte arctoa

      Black, Leucosticte atrata

      Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis

      Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis

      RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Calliope calliope

      RUFF, Calidris pugnax

      SANDERLING, Calidris alba

      SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii

      Broad-billed, Calidris falcinellus

      Buff-breasted, Calidris subruficollis

      Common, Actitis hypoleucos

      Curlew, Calidris ferruginea

      Green, Tringa ochropus

      Least, Calidris minutilla

      Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis

      Pectoral, Calidris melanotos

      Purple, Calidris maritima

      Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis

      Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla

      Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata

      Page 61299

      Solitary, Tringa solitaria

      Spoon-billed, Calidris pygmea

      Spotted, Actitis macularius

      Stilt, Calidris himantopus

      Terek, Xenus cinereus

      Upland, Bartramia longicauda

      Western, Calidris mauri

      White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis

      Wood, Tringa glareola

      SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii

      Lesser, Charadrius mongolus

      SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber

      Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis

      Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus

      Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius

      SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila

      Lesser, Aythya affinis

      SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia

      SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana

      Common, Melanitta nigra

      Surf, Melanitta perspicillata

      White-winged, Melanitta fusca

      SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio

      Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes

      Western, Megascops kennicottii

      Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis

      SCRUB-JAY, California, Aphelocoma californica

      Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens

      Island, Aphelocoma insularis

      Woodhouse's, Aphelocoma woodhouseii

      SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus

      SEEDEATER, Morelet's, Sporophila morelleti

      SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri

      Barolo, Puffinus baroli

      Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas

      Bryan's, Puffinus bryani

      Buller's, Ardenna bulleri

      Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii

      Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis

      Cory's, Calonectris diomedea

      Flesh-footed, Ardenna carneipes

      Great, Ardenna gravis

      Manx, Puffinus puffinus

      Newell's, Puffinus newelli

      Pink-footed, Ardenna creatopus

      Short-tailed, Ardenna tenuirostris

      Sooty, Ardenna grisea

      Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas

      Wedge-tailed, Ardenna pacifica

      SHOVELER, Northern, Spatula clypeata

      SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus

      Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus

      Northern, Lanius borealis

      SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptiliogonys cinereus

      SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus

      Pine, Spinus pinus

      SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger

      SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua

      South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki

      SKYLARK, Eurasian, Alauda arvensis

      SMEW, Mergellus albellus

      SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago

      Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus

      Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura

      Solitary, Gallinago solitaria

      Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala

      Wilson's, Gallinago delicata

      SOLITAIRE, Brown-backed, Myadestes occidentalis

      Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi

      SORA, Porzana carolina

      SPARROW, American Tree, Spizelloides arborea

      Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis

      Baird's, Centronyx bairdii

      Bell's, Artemisiospiza belli

      Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis

      Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata

      Botteri's, Peucaea botterii

      Brewer's, Spizella breweri

      Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii

      Chipping, Spizella passerina

      Clay-colored, Spizella pallida

      Field, Spizella pusilla

      Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata

      Fox, Passerella iliaca

      Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla

      Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum

      Harris's, Zonotrichia querula

      Henslow's, Centronyx henslowii

      Lark, Chondestes grammacus

      LeConte's, Ammospiza leconteii

      Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii

      Nelson's, Ammospiza nelsoni

      Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus

      Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps

      Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis

      Sagebrush, Artemisiospiza nevadensis

      Saltmarsh, Ammospiza caudacuta

      Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis

      Seaside, Ammospiza maritima

      Song, Melospiza melodia

      Swamp, Melospiza georgiana

      Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus

      White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys

      White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis

      Worthen's, Spizella wortheni

      SPARROWHAWK, Chinese, Accipiter soloensis

      Japanese, Accipiter gularis

      SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis

      Western, Spindalis zena

      SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja

      STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Agropsar philippensis

      White-cheeked, Spodiopsar cineraceus

      STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii

      STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus

      Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus

      STINT, Little, Calidris minuta

      Long-toed, Calidris subminuta

      Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis

      Temminck's, Calidris temminckii

      STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus

      STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana

      STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa

      Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro

      Black, Oceanodroma melania

      Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica

      Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata

      Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa

      Least, Oceanodroma microsoma

      Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae

      Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa

      Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi

      Swinhoe's, Oceanodroma monorhis

      Townsend's, Oceanodroma socorroensis

      Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami

      Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys

      White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria

      White-faced, Pelagodroma marina

      Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus

      SURFBIRD, Calidris virgata

      SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis

      Bank, Riparia riparia

      Barn, Hirundo rustica

      Cave, Petrochelidon fulva

      Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

      Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea

      Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis

      Tree, Tachycineta bicolor

      Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina

      SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio

      SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator

      Tundra, Cygnus columbianus

      Whooper, Cygnus cygnus

      SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba

      Black, Cypseloides niger

      Chimney, Chaetura pelagica

      Common, Apus apus

      Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus

      Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura

      Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi

      White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris

      White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis

      SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi

      White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius

      TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata

      Hepatic, Piranga flava

      Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus

      Scarlet, Piranga olivacea

      Summer, Piranga rubra

      Western, Piranga ludoviciana

      TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes

      Wandering, Tringa incana

      TEAL, Baikal, Sibirionetta formosa

      Blue-winged, Spatula discors

      Cinnamon, Spatula cyanoptera

      Green-winged, Anas crecca

      TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus

      Arctic, Sterna paradisaea

      Black, Chlidonias niger

      Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana

      Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus

      Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia

      Common, Sterna hirundo

      Elegant, Thalasseus elegans

      Forster's, Sterna forsteri

      Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus

      Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii

      Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica

      Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex

      Least, Sternula antillarum

      Little, Sternula albifrons

      Roseate, Sterna dougallii

      Royal, Thalasseus maximus

      Sandwich, Thalasseus sandvicensis

      Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus

      Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida

      White, Gygis alba

      White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus

      THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei

      Brown, Toxostoma rufum

      California, Toxostoma redivivum

      Crissal, Toxostoma crissale

      Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre

      LeConte's, Toxostoma lecontei

      Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre

      Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus

      Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus

      THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola

      Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli

      Clay-colored, Turdus grayi

      Dusky, Turdus naumanni

      Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus

      Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus

      Hermit, Catharus guttatus

      Page 61300

      Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus

      Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus

      Varied, Ixoreus naevius

      White-throated, Turdus assimilis

      Wood, Hylocichla mustelina

      TIGER-HERON, Bare-throated, Tigrisoma mexicanum

      TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus

      Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi

      Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi

      Oak, Baeolophus inornatus

      Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor

      TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata

      TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti

      California, Melozone crissalis

      Canyon, Melozone fusca

      Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus

      Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus

      Spotted, Pipilo maculatus

      TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans

      TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus

      Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda

      White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus

      TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala

      Ruddy, Arenaria interpres

      TURTLE-DOVE, European, Streptopelia turtur

      Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis

      VEERY, Catharus fuscescens

      VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps

      VIOLETEAR, Mexican, Colibri thalassinus

      VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii

      Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla

      Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus

      Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius

      Cassin's, Vireo cassinii

      Cuban, Vireo gundlachii

      Gray, Vireo vicinior

      Hutton's, Vireo huttoni

      Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus

      Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus

      Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri

      Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus

      Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris

      Warbling, Vireo gilvus

      White-eyed, Vireo griseus

      Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis

      Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons

      Yucatan, Vireo magister

      VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus

      Turkey, Cathartes aura

      WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola

      Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis

      Gray, Motacilla cinerea

      White, Motacilla alba

      WARBLER, Adelaide's, Setophaga adelaidae

      Aguiguan Reed, Acrocephalus nijoi

      Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis

      Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii

      Bay-breasted, Setophaga castanea

      Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia

      Blackburnian, Setophaga fusca

      Blackpoll, Setophaga striata

      Black-throated Blue, Setophaga caerulescens

      Black-throated Gray, Setophaga nigrescens

      Black-throated Green, Setophaga virens

      Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera

      Blyth's Reed, Acrocephalus dumetorum

      Canada, Cardellina canadensis

      Cape May, Setophaga tigrina

      Cerulean, Setophaga cerulea

      Chestnut-sided, Setophaga pensylvanica

      Colima, Oreothlypis crissalis

      Connecticut, Oporornis agilis

      Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa

      Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus

      Elfin-woods, Setophaga angelae

      Fan-tailed, Basileuterus lachrymosus

      Golden-cheeked, Setophaga chrysoparia

      Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus

      Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera

      Grace's, Setophaga graciae

      Hermit, Setophaga occidentalis

      Hooded, Setophaga citrina

      Kamchatka Leaf, Phylloscopus examinandus

      Kentucky, Geothlypis formosa

      Kirtland's, Setophaga kirtlandii

      Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata

      Lucy's, Oreothlypis luciae

      MacGillivray's, Geothlypis tolmiei

      Magnolia, Setophaga magnolia

      Mourning, Geothlypis philadelphia

      Nashville, Oreothlypis ruficapilla

      Nightingale Reed, Acrocephalus luscinius

      Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus

      Orange-crowned, Oreothlypis celata

      Pagan Reed, Acrocephalus yamashinae

      Pallas's Leaf, Phylloscopus proregulus

      Palm, Setophaga palmarum

      Pine, Setophaga pinus

      Prairie, Setophaga discolor

      Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea

      Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons

      Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons

      Saipan Reed, Acrocephalus hiwae

      Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

      Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii

      Tennessee, Oreothlypis peregrina

      Townsend's, Setophaga townsendi

      Virginia's, Oreothlypis virginiae

      Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus

      Wilson's, Cardellina pusilla

      Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix

      Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum

      Yellow, Setophaga petechia

      Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus

      Yellow-rumped, Setophaga coronata

      Yellow-throated, Setophaga dominica

      WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla

      Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis

      WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus

      Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum

      WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe

      WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus

      WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Antrostomus vociferus

      Mexican, Antrostomus arizonae

      WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis

      Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor

      West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea

      WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca

      WIGEON, American, Mareca americana

      Eurasian, Mareca penelope

      WILLET, Tringa semipalmata

      WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor

      Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola

      WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus

      American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis

      Arizona, Dryobates arizonae

      Black-backed, Picoides arcticus

      Downy, Dryobates pubescens

      Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis

      Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons

      Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major

      Hairy, Dryobates villosus

      Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis

      Ladder-backed, Dryobates scalaris

      Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis

      Nuttall's, Dryobates nuttallii

      Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus

      Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis

      Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus

      Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis

      Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus

      White-headed, Dryobates albolarvatus

      WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens

      Western, Contopus sordidulus

      WOOD-RAIL, Rufous-necked, Aramides axillaris

      WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae

      WREN, Bewick's, Thryomanes bewickii

      Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

      Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus

      Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus

      House, Troglodytes aedon

      Marsh, Cistothorus palustris

      Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus

      Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus

      Sedge, Cistothorus platensis

      Sinaloa, Thryophilus sinaloa

      Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis

      WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata

      WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla

      YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca

      Lesser, Tringa flavipes

      YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas

      Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

      (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.


      Family ANATIDAE

      Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE

      Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

      Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck

      Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck

      Subfamily ANSERINAE

      Anser canagicus, Emperor Goose

      Anser caerulescens, Snow Goose

      Anser rossii, Ross's Goose

      Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose

      Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose

      Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose

      Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose

      Anser brachyrhynchus, Pink-footed Goose

      Branta bernicla, Brant

      Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose

      Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose

      Branta canadensis, Canada Goose

      Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose

      Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan

      Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan

      Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan

      Subfamily ANATINAE

      Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck

      Aix sponsa, Wood Duck

      Sibirionetta formosa, Baikal Teal

      Spatula querquedula, Garganey

      Spatula discors, Blue-winged Teal

      Spatula cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal

      Page 61301

      Spatula clypeata, Northern Shoveler

      Mareca strepera, Gadwall

      Mareca falcata, Falcated Duck

      Mareca penelope, Eurasian Wigeon

      Mareca americana, American Wigeon

      Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck

      Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck

      Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck

      Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard

      Anas rubripes, American Black Duck

      Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck

      Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck

      Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail

      Anas acuta, Northern Pintail

      Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal

      Aythya valisineria, Canvasback

      Aythya americana, Redhead

      Aythya ferina, Common Pochard

      Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard

      Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck

      Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck

      Aythya marila, Greater Scaup

      Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup

      Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider

      Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider

      Somateria spectabilis, King Eider

      Somateria mollissima, Common Eider

      Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck

      Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter

      Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter

      Melanitta nigra, Common Scoter

      Melanitta americana, Black Scoter

      Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck

      Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead

      Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye

      Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye

      Mergellus albellus, Smew

      Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser

      Mergus merganser, Common Merganser

      Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser

      Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck

      Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck



      Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo



      Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe

      Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe

      Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe

      Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe

      Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe

      Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe

      Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe


      Family COLUMBIDAE

      Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon

      Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon

      Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon

      Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon

      Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon

      Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove

      Alopecoenas xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove

      Alopecoenas stairi, Shy Ground-Dove

      Streptopelia turtur, European Turtle-Dove

      Columbina inca, Inca Dove

      Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove

      Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove

      Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove

      Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove

      Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove

      Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove

      Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove

      Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove

      Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove

      Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove

      Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove

      Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove

      Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon


      Family CUCULIDAE

      Subfamily CUCULINAE

      Urodynamis taitensis, Long-tailed Koel

      Hierococcyx nisicolor, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo

      Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo

      Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo

      Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo

      Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo

      Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo

      Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo

      Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE

      Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner

      Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE

      Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani

      Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani



      Subfamily CHORDEILINAE

      Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk

      Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk

      Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk

      Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE

      Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque

      Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill

      Antrostomus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow

      Antrostomus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar

      Antrostomus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will

      Antrostomus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will

      Antrostomus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar

      Hydropsalis cayennensis, White-tailed Nightjar

      Caprimulgus jotaka, Gray Nightjar


      Family APODIDAE

      Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE

      Cypseloides niger, Black Swift

      Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift

      Subfamily CHAETURINAE

      Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift

      Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift

      Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift

      Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail

      Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet

      Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet

      Subfamily APODINAE

      Apus apus, Common Swift

      Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift

      Apus melba, Alpine Swift

      Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift

      Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift

      Family TROCHILIDAE

      Subfamily TROCHILINAE

      Colibri thalassinus, Mexican Violetear

      Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango

      Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango

      Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango

      Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib

      Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib

      Eugenes fulgens, Rivoli's Hummingbird

      Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat

      Lampornis amethystinus, Amethyst-throated Hummingbird

      Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird

      Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar

      Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird

      Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird

      Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird

      Mellisuga minima, Vervain Hummingbird

      Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird

      Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird

      Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird

      Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird

      Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird

      Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird

      Selasphorus calliope, Calliope Hummingbird

      Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald

      Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird

      Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird

      Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird

      Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird

      Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird

      Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird

      Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird

      Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird

      Order GRUIFORMES

      Family RALLIDAE

      Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail

      Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail

      Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail

      Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail

      Crex crex, Corn Crake

      Rallus obsoletus, Ridgway's Rail

      Rallus crepitans, Clapper Rail

      Rallus elegans, King Rail

      Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail

      Aramides axillaris, Rufous-necked Wood-Rail

      Porzana carolina, Sora

      Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake

      Hapalocrex flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake

      Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake

      Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail

      Porphyrio martinicus, Purple Gallinule

      Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule

      Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen

      Gallinula galeata, Common Gallinule

      Page 61302

      Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen

      Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot

      Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot

      Fulica americana, American Coot

      Family ARAMIDAE

      Aramus guarauna, Limpkin

      Family GRUIDAE

      Subfamily GRUINAE

      Antigone canadensis, Sandhill Crane

      Grus grus, Common Crane

      Grus americana, Whooping Crane



      Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt

      Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt

      Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet


      Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher

      Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher

      Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher


      Subfamily VANELLINAE

      Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing

      Subfamily CHARADRIINAE

      Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover

      Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover

      Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover

      Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover

      Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover

      Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover

      Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover

      Charadrius alexandrinus, Kentish Plover

      Charadrius nivosus, Snowy Plover

      Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover

      Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover

      Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover

      Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover

      Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover

      Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer

      Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover

      Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel

      Family JACANIDAE

      Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana


      Subfamily NUMENIINAE

      Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper

      Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew

      Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel

      Numenius minutus, Little Curlew

      Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew

      Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew

      Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew

      Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew

      Subfamily LIMOSINAE

      Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit

      Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit

      Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit

      Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit

      Subfamily ARENARIINAE

      Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone

      Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone

      Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot

      Calidris canutus, Red Knot

      Calidris virgata, Surfbird

      Calidris pugnax, Ruff

      Calidris falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper

      Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper

      Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper

      Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper

      Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint

      Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint

      Calidris pygmea, Spoon-billed Sandpiper

      Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint

      Calidris alba, Sanderling

      Calidris alpina, Dunlin

      Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper

      Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper

      Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper

      Calidris minuta, Little Stint

      Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper

      Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper

      Calidris subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper

      Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper

      Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper

      Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper

      Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE

      Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher

      Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher

      Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe

      Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock

      Scolopax minor, American Woodcock

      Gallinago solitaria, Solitary Snipe

      Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe

      Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe

      Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe

      Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe

      Subfamily TRINGINAE

      Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper

      Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper

      Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper

      Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper

      Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper

      Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler

      Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler

      Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs

      Tringa semipalmata, Willet

      Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank

      Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank

      Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank

      Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs

      Tringa totanus, Common Redshank

      Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper

      Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper

      Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope

      Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope

      Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope


      Stercorarius skua, Great Skua

      Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua

      Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger

      Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger

      Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger

      Family ALCIDAE

      Alle alle, Dovekie

      Uria aalge, Common Murre

      Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre

      Alca torda, Razorbill

      Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot

      Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot

      Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet

      Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet

      Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet

      Synthliboramphus scrippsi, Scripps's Murrelet

      Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Guadalupe Murrelet

      Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet

      Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet

      Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet

      Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet

      Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet

      Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet

      Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet

      Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet

      Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin

      Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin

      Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin

      Family LARIDAE

      Subfamily LARINAE

      Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull

      Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake

      Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake

      Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull

      Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull

      Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull

      Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull

      Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull

      Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull

      Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull

      Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull

      Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull

      Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull

      Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull

      Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull

      Larus canus, Mew Gull

      Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull

      Larus occidentalis, Western Gull

      Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull

      Larus californicus, California Gull

      Larus argentatus, Herring Gull

      Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull

      Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull

      Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull

      Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull

      Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull

      Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull

      Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull

      Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull

      Subfamily STERNINAE

      Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy

      Anous minutus, Black Noddy

      Anous ceruleus, Blue-gray Noddy

      Gygis alba, White Tern

      Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern

      Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern

      Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern

      Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern

      Sternula albifrons, Little Tern

      Sternula antillarum, Least Tern

      Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern

      Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern

      Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern

      Chlidonias niger, Black Tern

      Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern

      Chlidonias hybrida, Whiskered Tern

      Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern

      Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern

      Sterna hirundo, Common Tern

      Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern

      Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern

      Page 61303

      Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern

      Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern

      Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern

      Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern

      Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE

      Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer



      Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird

      Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird

      Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird


      Family GAVIIDAE

      Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon

      Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon

      Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon

      Gavia immer, Common Loon

      Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon


      Family DIOMEDEIDAE

      Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross

      Thalassarche cauta, White-capped Albatross

      Thalassarche eremita, Chatham Albatross

      Thalassarche salvini, Salvin's Albatross

      Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross

      Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross

      Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross

      Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross

      Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross

      Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross

      Family OCEANITIDAE

      Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel

      Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel

      Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel


      Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel

      Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma socorroensis, Townsend's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel


      Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar

      Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel

      Pterodroma solandri, Providence Petrel

      Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel

      Pterodroma arminjoniana, Trindade Petrel

      Pterodroma heraldica, Herald Petrel

      Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel

      Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel

      Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel

      Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel

      Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel

      Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel

      Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel

      Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel

      Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel

      Pterodroma feae, Fea's Petrel

      Pterodroma madeira, Zino's Petrel

      Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel

      Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel

      Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel

      Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel

      Pseudobulweria rostrata, Tahiti Petrel

      Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel

      Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel

      Procellaria aequinoctialis, White-chinned Petrel

      Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel

      Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater

      Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater

      Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater

      Ardenna pacifica, Wedge-tailed Shearwater

      Ardenna bulleri, Buller's Shearwater

      Ardenna tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater

      Ardenna grisea, Sooty Shearwater

      Ardenna gravis, Great Shearwater

      Ardenna creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater

      Ardenna carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater

      Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater

      Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater

      Puffinus newelli, Newell's Shearwater

      Puffinus bryani, Bryan's Shearwater

      Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater

      Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater

      Puffinus baroli, Barolo Shearwater


      Family CICONIIDAE

      Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru

      Mycteria americana, Wood Stork

      Order SULIFORMES

      Family FREGATIDAE

      Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird

      Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird

      Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird

      Family SULIDAE

      Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby

      Sula granti, Nazca Booby

      Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby

      Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby

      Sula sula, Red-footed Booby

      Papasula abbotti, Abbott's Booby

      Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet


      Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant

      Family ANHINGIDAE

      Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga


      Family PELECANIDAE

      Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican

      Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican

      Family ARDEIDAE

      Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern

      Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern

      Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern

      Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern

      Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern

      Tigrisoma mexicanum, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron

      Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron

      Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron

      Ardea alba, Great Egret

      Ardea intermedia, Intermediate Egret

      Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret

      Egretta garzetta, Little Egret

      Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Heron

      Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron

      Egretta thula, Snowy Egret

      Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron

      Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron

      Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret

      Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret

      Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron

      Butorides virescens, Green Heron

      Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron

      Nycticorax caledonicus, Rufous Night-Heron

      Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

      Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron

      Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron



      Eudocimus albus, White Ibis

      Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis

      Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis

      Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis

      Subfamily PLATALEINAE

      Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill


      Family CATHARTIDAE

      Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture

      Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture

      Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor


      Family PANDIONIDAE

      Pandion haliaetus, Osprey


      Subfamily ELANINAE

      Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite

      Subfamily GYPAETINAE

      Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite

      Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite

      Subfamily ACCIPITRINAE

      Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle

      Harpagus bidentatus, Double-toothed Kite

      Circus spilonotus, Eastern Marsh-Harrier

      Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier

      Accipiter soloensis, Chinese Sparrowhawk

      Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk

      Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk

      Page 61304

      Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk

      Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk

      Milvus migrans, Black Kite

      Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle

      Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle

      Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle

      Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite

      Butastur indicus, Gray-faced Buzzard

      Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk

      Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite

      Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black Hawk

      Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk

      Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk

      Geranoaetus albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk

      Buteo plagiatus, Gray Hawk

      Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk

      Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk

      Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk

      Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk

      Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk

      Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk

      Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk

      Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk

      Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk


      Family TYTONIDAE

      Tyto alba, Barn Owl

      Family STRIGIDAE

      Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl

      Psiloscops flammeolus, Flammulated Owl

      Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl

      Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl

      Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl

      Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl

      Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl

      Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl

      Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl

      Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl

      Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl

      Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl

      Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl

      Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl

      Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl

      Strix varia, Barred Owl

      Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl

      Asio otus, Long-eared Owl

      Asio stygius, Stygian Owl

      Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl

      Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl

      Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl

      Ninox japonica, Northern Boobook


      Family TROGONIDAE

      Subfamily TROGONINAE

      Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon

      Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzal


      Family UPUPIDAE

      Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe


      Family ALCEDINIDAE

      Subfamily ALCEDININAE

      Alcedo atthis, Common Kingfisher

      Subfamily HALCYONINAE

      Todiramphus sacer, Pacific Kingfisher

      Todiramphus cinnamominus, Guam Kingfisher

      Todiramphus albicilla, Mariana Kingfisher

      Subfamily CERYLINAE

      Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher

      Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher

      Chloroceryle amazona, Amazon Kingfisher

      Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher

      Order PICIFORMES

      Family PICIDAE

      Subfamily JYNGINAE

      Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck

      Subfamily PICINAE

      Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker

      Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker

      Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker

      Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker

      Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker

      Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker

      Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker

      Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker

      Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

      Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker

      Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker

      Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker

      Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker

      Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker

      Dryobates pubescens, Downy Woodpecker

      Dryobates nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker

      Dryobates scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker

      Dryobates borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker

      Dryobates villosus, Hairy Woodpecker

      Dryobates albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker

      Dryobates arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker

      Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker

      Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker

      Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker

      Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker


      Family FALCONIDAE


      Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon

      Subfamily FALCONINAE

      Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara

      Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel

      Falco sparverius, American Kestrel

      Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon

      Falco amurensis, Amur Falcon

      Falco columbarius, Merlin

      Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby

      Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon

      Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon

      Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon

      Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon


      Family TITYRIDAE

      Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra

      Pachyramphus major, Gray-collared Becard

      Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard

      Family TYRANNIDAE

      Subfamily ELAENIINAE

      Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet

      Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia

      Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia

      Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Elaenia

      Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE

      Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher

      Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher

      Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee

      Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee

      Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee

      Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee

      Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee

      Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee

      Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

      Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher

      Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher

      Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher

      Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher

      Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher

      Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher

      Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher

      Empidonax affinis, Pine Flycatcher

      Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher

      Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher

      Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher

      Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe

      Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe

      Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe

      Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher

      Subfamily TYRANNINAE

      Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher

      Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher

      Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher

      Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher

      Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher

      Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher

      Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher

      Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee

      Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher

      Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher

      Legatus leucophaius, Piratic Flycatcher

      Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher

      Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher

      Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird

      Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird

      Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird

      Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird

      Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird

      Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird

      Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird

      Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird

      Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

      Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher

      Family LANIIDAE

      Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike

      Page 61305

      Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike

      Lanius borealis, Northern Shrike

      Family VIREONIDAE

      Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo

      Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo

      Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo

      Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo

      Vireo gundlachii, Cuban Vireo

      Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo

      Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo

      Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo

      Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo

      Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo

      Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo

      Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo

      Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo

      Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo

      Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo

      Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo

      Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo

      Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo

      Family CORVIDAE

      Perisoreus canadensis, Canada Jay

      Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay

      Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay

      Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay

      Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay

      Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay

      Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay

      Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay

      Aphelocoma californica, California Scrub-Jay

      Aphelocoma woodhouseii, Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay

      Aphelocoma wollweberi, Mexican Jay

      Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker

      Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie

      Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie

      Corvus monedula, Eurasian Jackdaw

      Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow

      Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow

      Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow

      Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow

      Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow

      Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow

      Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow

      Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven

      Corvus corax, Common Raven

      Family ALAUDIDAE

      Alauda arvensis, Eurasian Skylark

      Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark


      Subfamily HIRUNDININAE

      Progne subis, Purple Martin

      Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin

      Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin

      Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin

      Progne elegans, Southern Martin

      Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin

      Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow

      Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow

      Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow

      Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow

      Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow

      Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow

      Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow

      Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow

      Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow

      Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin

      Family PARIDAE

      Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee

      Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee

      Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee

      Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee

      Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee

      Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee

      Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee

      Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse

      Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse

      Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse

      Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse

      Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse

      Family REMIZIDAE

      Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin


      Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit

      Family SITTIDAE

      Subfamily SITTINAE

      Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch

      Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch

      Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch

      Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch

      Family CERTHIIDAE

      Subfamily CERTHIINAE

      Certhia americana, Brown Creeper


      Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren

      Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren

      Troglodytes aedon, House Wren

      Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren

      Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren

      Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren

      Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren

      Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren

      Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren

      Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren

      Thryophilus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren


      Polioptila caerulea, Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher

      Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher

      Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher

      Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher

      Family CINCLIDAE

      Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper

      Family REGULIDAE

      Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet

      Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet


      Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler

      Phylloscopus collybita, Common Chiffchaff

      Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler

      Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler

      Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf Warbler

      Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler

      Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler

      Phylloscopus examinandus, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler

      Family SYLVIIDAE

      Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat

      Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit


      Acrocephalus luscinius, Nightingale Reed Warbler

      Acrocephalus hiwae, Saipan Reed warbler

      Acrocephalus nijoi, Aguiguan Reed Warbler

      Acrocephalus yamashinae, Pagan Reed Warbler

      Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird

      Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler

      Acrocephalus dumetorum, Blyth's Reed Warbler


      Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler

      Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler


      Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher

      Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher

      Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher

      Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher

      Larvivora cyane, Siberian Blue Robin

      Larvivora sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin

      Cyanecula svecica, Bluethroat

      Calliope calliope, Siberian Rubythroat

      Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail

      Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher

      Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher

      Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher

      Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Common Redstart

      Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat

      Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear

      Family TURDIDAE

      Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush

      Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird

      Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird

      Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird

      Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire

      Myadestes occidentalis, Brown-backed Solitaire

      Myadestes myadestinus, Kccedilma`o

      Myadestes lanaiensis, Oloma`o

      Myadestes obscurus, `Occedilma'o

      Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi

      Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush

      Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush

      Catharus fuscescens, Veery

      Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush

      Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush

      Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush

      Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush

      Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush

      Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush

      Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush

      Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare

      Turdus iliacus, Redwing

      Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush

      Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush

      Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin

      Turdus migratorius, American Robin

      Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush

      Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush

      Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush

      Family MIMIDAE

      Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird

      Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird

      Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird

      Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher

      Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher

      Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher

      Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher

      Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher

      Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher

      Toxostoma lecontei, LeConte's Thrasher

      Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher

      Page 61306

      Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher

      Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird

      Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird

      Family STURNIDAE

      Agropsar philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling

      Spodiopsar cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling


      Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing

      Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing


      Ptiliogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher

      Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla


      Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler

      Family PRUNELLIDAE

      Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor


      Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail

      Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail

      Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail

      Motacilla alba, White Wagtail

      Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit

      Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit

      Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit

      Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit

      Anthus rubescens, American Pipit

      Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit


      Subfamily FRINGILLINAE

      Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch

      Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling

      Subfamily EUPHONIINAE

      Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia

      Subfamily CARDUELINAE

      Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak

      Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch

      Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch

      Melamprosops phaeosoma, Po`ouli

      Oreomystis bairdi, `Akikiki

      Paroreomyza maculata, O`ahu `Alauahio

      Paroreomyza flammea, Katildekatildewahie

      Paroreomyza montana, Maui `Alauahio

      Loxioides bailleui, Palila

      Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch

      Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch

      Palmeria dolei, `Akohekohe

      Himatione fraithii, Laysan Honeycreeper

      Himatione sanguinea, `Apapane

      Drepanis coccinea, `I`iwi

      Psittirostra psittacea, `Otilde`utilde

      Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill

      Hemignathus hanapepe, Kauai Nukupu`u

      Hemignathus lucidus, O`ahu Nukupu`u

      Hemignathus affinis, Maui Nukupu`u

      Hemignathus wilsoni, `Akiapola`au

      Akialoa stejnegeri, Kauai `Akialoa

      Akialoa ellisiana, O`ahu `Akialoa

      Akialoa lanaiensis, Maui Nui `Akialoa

      Magumma parva, `Anianiau

      Chlorodrepanis virens, Hawaii `Amakihi

      Chlorodrepanis flava, O`ahu `Amakihi

      Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri, Kauai `Amakihi

      Loxops mana, Hawaii Creeper

      Loxops caeruleirostris, `Akeke`e

      Loxops wolstenholmei, O`ahu `Akepa

      Loxops ochraceus, Maui `Akepa

      Loxops coccineus, Hawaii `Akepa

      Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak

      Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch

      Leucosticte arctoa, Asian Rosy-Finch

      Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch

      Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch

      Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch

      Haemorhous mexicanus, House Finch

      Haemorhous purpureus, Purple Finch

      Haemorhous cassinii, Cassin's Finch

      Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch

      Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll

      Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll

      Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill

      Loxia sinesciuris, Cassia Crossbill

      Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill

      Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin

      Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin

      Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch

      Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch

      Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch

      Family CALCARIIDAE

      Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur

      Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur

      Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur

      Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur

      Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting

      Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting

      Family EMBERIZIDAE

      Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting

      Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting

      Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting

      Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting

      Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting

      Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting

      Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting

      Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting

      Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting


      Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow

      Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee

      Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee

      Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee

      Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow

      Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee

      Melozone crissalis, California Towhee

      Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee

      Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow

      Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow

      Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow

      Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow

      Spizelloides arborea, American Tree Sparrow

      Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow

      Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow

      Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow

      Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow

      Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow

      Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow

      Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow

      Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow

      Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow

      Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow

      Artemisiospiza nevadensis, Sagebrush Sparrow

      Artemisiospiza belli, Bell's Sparrow

      Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting

      Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow

      Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow

      Centronyx bairdii, Baird's Sparrow

      Centronyx henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow

      Ammospiza leconteii, LeConte's Sparrow

      Ammospiza maritima, Seaside Sparrow

      Ammospiza nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow

      Ammospiza caudacuta, Saltmarsh Sparrow

      Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow

      Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow

      Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow

      Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow

      Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow

      Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow

      Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow

      Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow

      Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco

      Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco


      Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager

      Family SPINDALIDAE

      Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis

      Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis

      Family ICTERIIDAE

      Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat

      Family ICTERIDAE


      Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird


      Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink

      Subfamily STURNELLINAE

      Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark

      Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark

      Subfamily ICTERINAE

      Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole

      Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole

      Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole

      Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole

      Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole

      Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole

      Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole

      Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole

      Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole

      Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole

      Subfamily AGELAIINAE

      Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird

      Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird

      Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird

      Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird

      Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird

      Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird

      Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird

      Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird

      Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird

      Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle

      Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle

      Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle

      Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle

      Family PARULIDAE

      Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird

      Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler

      Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush

      Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush

      Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler

      Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler

      Page 61307

      Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged Warbler

      Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler

      Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler

      Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler

      Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler

      Oreothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler

      Oreothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler

      Oreothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler

      Oreothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler

      Oreothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler

      Oreothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler

      Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler

      Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat

      Geothlypis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler

      Geothlypis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler

      Geothlypis formosa, Kentucky Warbler

      Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat

      Setophaga angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler

      Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler

      Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart

      Setophaga kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler

      Setophaga tigrina, Cape May Warbler

      Setophaga cerulea, Cerulean Warbler

      Setophaga americana, Northern Parula

      Setophaga pitiayumi, Tropical Parula

      Setophaga magnolia, Magnolia Warbler

      Setophaga castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler

      Setophaga fusca, Blackburnian Warbler

      Setophaga petechia, Yellow Warbler

      Setophaga pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler

      Setophaga striata, Blackpoll Warbler

      Setophaga caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler

      Setophaga palmarum, Palm Warbler

      Setophaga pinus, Pine Warbler

      Setophaga coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler

      Setophaga dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler

      Setophaga discolor, Prairie Warbler

      Setophaga adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler

      Setophaga graciae, Grace's Warbler

      Setophaga nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler

      Setophaga townsendi, Townsend's Warbler

      Setophaga occidentalis, Hermit Warbler

      Setophaga chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler

      Setophaga virens, Black-throated Green Warbler

      Basileuterus lachrymosus, Fan-tailed Warbler

      Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler

      Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler

      Cardellina canadensis, Canada Warbler

      Cardellina pusilla, Wilson's Warbler

      Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler

      Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart

      Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart


      Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager

      Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager

      Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager

      Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager

      Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager

      Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak

      Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal

      Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia

      Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak

      Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak

      Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak

      Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting

      Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak

      Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting

      Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting

      Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting

      Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting

      Spiza americana, Dickcissel

      Family THRAUPIDAE

      Subfamily DACNINAE

      Cyanerpes cyaneus, Red-legged Honeycreeper

      Subfamily COEREBINAE

      Coereba flaveola, Bananaquit

      Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit

      Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit

      Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch

      Subfamily SPOROPHILINAE

      Sporophila morelleti, Morelet's Seedeater

      * * * * *

      Dated: October 29, 2018.

      Andrea Travnicek,

      Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary--Water and Science, Exercising the Authority of the Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.

      FR Doc. 2018-25634 Filed 11-27-18; 8:45 am

      BILLING CODE 4333-15-P