General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

Federal Register, Volume 78 Issue 212 (Friday, November 1, 2013)

Federal Register Volume 78, Number 212 (Friday, November 1, 2013)

Rules and Regulations

Pages 65843-65864

From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office

FR Doc No: 2013-26061

Page 65843

Vol. 78


No. 212

November 1, 2013

Part III

Department of the Interior


Fish and Wildlife Service


50 CFR Parts 10 and 21

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds; Final Rule

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Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Parts 10 and 21

Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2010-0088, FF09M21200-134-FXMB1231099BPP0

RIN 1018-AX48

General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, revise the List of Migratory Birds by both adding and removing species. Reasons for the changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and new evidence of occurrence in the United States or U.S. territories, removing species no longer known to occur within the United States, and changing names to conform to accepted use. The net increase of 19 species (23 added and 4 removed) brings the total number of species protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) to 1,026. We regulate most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for public notification and regulatory purposes.

DATES: This rule is effective December 2, 2013.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen at 703-358-1825.



What statutory authority does the service have for this rulemaking?

We have statutory authority and responsibility for enforcing the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:

(1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain on behalf of Canada for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628);

(2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912);

(3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and

(4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment (Russia), November 19, 1976, 29 U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

What is the purpose of this rulemaking?

Our purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by the MBTA and its implementing regulations. These regulations are found in Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 10, 20, and 21. We regulate most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to-date list of species protected by the MBTA is essential for regulatory purposes.

Why is this amendment of the list of migratory birds necessary?

The amendment is needed to: (1) Add five species previously overlooked from a family protected under the MBTA; (2) correct the spelling of six species on the alphabetized list; (3) correct the spelling of three species on the taxonomic list; (4) add 11 species based on new distributional records documenting their natural occurrence in the United States since April 2007; (5) add one species from a family now protected under the MBTA as a result of taxonomic changes; (6) add six species newly recognized as a result of recent taxonomic changes; (7) remove four species not known to occur within the boundaries of the United States or its territories as a result of recent taxonomic changes; (8) change the common (English) names of nine species to conform with accepted use; and (9) change the scientific names of 36 species to conform to accepted use.

The List of Migratory Birds (50 CFR 10.13) was last revised on March 1, 2010 (75 FR 9282). These amendments were necessitated by three published supplements to the 7th (1998) edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's (AOU's) Check-list of North American birds (AOU 2008, AOU 2009, and AOU 2010).

In addition, we correct the legal authorities citations at 50 CFR 10.13(a).

We also make a small change to a definition in 50 CFR 21.3. We update the definition of ``raptor'' to also include the Order Accipitriformes, corresponding to recent taxonomic changes reflected in the List of Migratory Birds.

What scientific authorities are used to amend the list of migratory birds?

Although bird names (common and scientific) are relatively stable, staying current with standardized use is necessary to avoid confusion in communications. In making our determinations, we primarily relied on the American Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American birds (AOU 1998), as amended (AOU 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010), on matters of taxonomy, nomenclature, and the sequence of species and other higher taxonomic categories (orders, families, subfamilies) for species that occur in North America. The AOU Checklist contains all bird species that have occurred in North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, and includes distributional information for each species, which specifies whether the species is known to occur in the United States. For the 39 species that occur outside the geographic area covered by the Check-list (28 that occur in the Pacific island territories and 11 listed in the Japanese and/or Russian conventions that have not occurred in the AOU area), we relied primarily on Clements (2007). Although we primarily rely on the above checklists, when informed taxonomic opinion is inconsistent or controversial, we evaluate available published and unpublished information and come to our own conclusion regarding the validity of taxa.

What criteria are used to identify individual species protected by the MBTA?

A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA by meeting one or more of the following four criteria:

(1) It is covered by the Canadian Convention of 1916, as amended in 1996, by virtue of meeting the following three criteria: (a) It belongs to a family or group of species named in the Canadian Convention, as amended; (b) specimens, photographs, videotape recordings, or audiotape recordings provide convincing evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or its territories; and (c) the documentation of such records has been recognized by the AOU or other competent scientific authorities.

(2) It is covered by the Mexican Convention of 1936, as amended in

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1972, by virtue of meeting the following three criteria: (a) It belongs to a family or group of species named in the Mexican Convention, as amended; (b) specimens, photographs, videotape recordings, or audiotape recordings provide convincing evidence of natural occurrence in the United States or its territories; and (c) the documentation of such records has been recognized by the AOU or other competent scientific authorities.

(3) It is listed in the annex to the Japanese Convention of 1972, as amended.

(4) It is listed in the appendix to the Russian Convention of 1976.

In accordance with the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act of 2004 (MBTRA) (Pub. L. 108-447, 118 Stat. 2809, 3071-72), we include all species native to the United States or its territories, which are those that occur as a result of natural biological or ecological processes (see 70 FR 12710, March 15, 2005). We do not include nonnative species whose occurrences in the United States are solely the result of intentional or unintentional human-assisted introduction(s).

How do the changes affect the list of migratory birds?

Several taxonomic changes were made at the Order and Family level by the AOU since our 2010 publication of the list (75 FR 9282, March 1, 2010). These changes affect the inclusion and taxonomic order of species on this list. Specifically, the Orders Phaethontiformes and Suliformes were split from the Pelecaniformes. Phaethontiformes now includes the Family Phaethontidae (tropicbirds); Suliformes now includes the Families Fregatidae (frigatebirds), Sulidae (boobys), Phalacrocoracidae (cormorants), and Anhingidae (anhingas). In addition, the Order Accipitriformes was split from the Falconiformes and now include the Families Cathartidae (vultures), Pandionidae (Osprey), and Accipitridae (hawks and eagles). At the Family level, the Ardeidae (herons and egrets) and Threskiornithidae (ibis and spoonbills) were moved from the Ciconiiformes to the Pelecaniformes Order, the Pandionidae (Osprey) was split from the Accipitridae (hawks and eagles), and the Stercorariidae (jaegers and skuas) was split from the Laridae (gulls, terns, and skimmers). The Polioptilidae (gnatcatchers), Phylloscopidae (Phylloscopus warblers), Acrocephalidae (Acrocephalus warblers), and Megaluridae (Locustella warblers) were split from the Sylviidae, and the Calcariidae (longspurs and snow buntings) was split from the Emberizidae (buntings and sparrows). The euphonias were put into their own Subfamily (Euphoniinae) and moved from the Thraupidae to the Fringillidae Family. All species within these newly created Families continue to be protected under the MBTA. In addition, the Wrentit was moved from the Timaliidae (babblers) to the Sylviidae and is now in a Family protected by the MBTA.

The amendments (23 additions, 4 removals, and 54 name changes) affect a grand total of 79 species and result in a net addition of 19 species to the List of Migratory Birds, increasing the species total from 1,007 to 1,026. Of the 23 species that we add to the list, 6 were previously covered under the MBTA as subspecies of listed species. These amendments can be logically arranged in the following 9 categories:

(1) Add five species from the family Muscicapidae, a family specifically listed in the 1996 protocol amending the 1916 convention with Canada. The omission of these species on the previous list was an oversight. All are considered accidental or casual in Alaska. The species and relevant AOU publication(s) are:

Mugimaki Flycatcher, Ficedula mugimaki (AOU 1987, 1997, 1998);

Taiga Flycatcher, Ficedula albicilla (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998, 2006);

Dark-sided Flycatcher, Muscicapa sibirica (AOU 1982, 1983, 1998, 2004);

Asian Brown Flycatcher, Muscicapa dauurica (AOU 1987, 1989, 1998); and

Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa striata (AOU 2004).

(2) Correct the spelling of six scientific names on the alphabetized list:

Nesofregata fuliginosa (Polynesian Storm-Petrel), becomes Nesofregetta fuliginosa;

Thalleseus maximus (Royal Tern), becomes Thalasseus maximus;

Thalleseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern), becomes Thalasseus sandvicensis;

Vireo atricapillus (Black-capped Vireo), becomes Vireo atricapilla;

Phylloscopus siilatrix (Wood Warbler), becomes Phylloscopus sibilatrix; and

Locustella lanceoloata (Lanceolated Warbler), becomes Locustella lanceolata.

(3) Correct the spelling of three scientific names on the taxonomic list:

Nesofregetta fuiginosa (Polynesian Storm-Petrel), becomes Nesofregetta fuliginosa;

Vireo atricapillus (Black-capped Vireo), becomes Vireo atricapilla; and

Tiaris olivacea (Yellow-faced Grassquit), becomes Tiaris olivaceus.

(4) Add 11 species based on review and acceptance by AOU (since April 2007) of new distributional records documenting their occurrence in the United States, Puerto Rico, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. These species belong to families covered by the Canadian and/or Mexican Conventions, and all are considered to be of accidental or casual occurrence. For each species, we list the State in which it has been recorded plus the relevant publication:

Parkinson's Petrel, Procellaria parkinsoni--California (AOU 2008);

Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel, Oceanodroma monorhis--North Carolina (AOU 2010);

Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus furcatus--California (AOU 2008);

Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata--Alaska (AOU 2009);

White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia albiceps--Texas (AOU 2010);

Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus--

Louisiana (AOU 2010);

Sinaloa Wren, Thryothorus sinaloa--Arizona (AOU 2010);

Pallas's Leaf-Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus--Alaska (AOU 2008);

Sedge Warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus--Alaska (AOU 2009);

Rufous-tailed Robin, Luscinia sibilans--Alaska (AOU 2010); and

Yellow-browed Bunting, Emberiza chrysophrys--Alaska (AOU 2009).

(5) Add one species because of recent taxonomic changes transferring a species in a family formerly not protected by the MBTA (Timaliidae) into a family protected under the MBTA (Sylviidae). We reference the AOU publication supporting the change:

Wrentit, Chamaea fasciata (AOU 2010).

(6) Add six species because of recent taxonomic changes in which taxa formerly treated as subspecies have been determined to be distinct species. Given that each of these species was formerly treated as subspecies of a listed species, these additions will not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication supporting the change:

Eastern Spot-billed Duck, Anas zonorhyncha--formerly considered a subspecies of Anas poecilorhyncha, Spot-billed Duck (AOU 2008);

Black Scoter, Melanitta americana--formerly treated as a subspecies of Melanitta nigra, Common Black Scoter (AOU 2009);

Mexican Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus arizonae--formerly treated as a subspecies of Caprimulgus vociferus, Whip-poor-will (AOU 2010);

Pacific Wren, Troglodytes pacificus--formerly treated as a subspecies of

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Troglodytes troglodytes, Eurasian Winter Wren (AOU 2010);

Winter Wren, Troglodytes hiemalis--formerly treated as a subspecies of Troglodytes troglodytes, Eurasian Winter Wren (AOU 2010); and

Puerto Rican Oriole, Icterus portoricensis--formerly treated as a subspecies of Icterus dominicensis, Hispaniolan Greater Antillean Oriole (AOU 2010).

(7) Remove four species based on revised taxonomic treatments and distributional evidence confirming that their known geographic ranges lie entirely outside the political boundaries of the United States and its territories. In each case, we reference the AOU publication supporting these changes:

Spot-billed Duck, Anas poecilorhyncha (AOU 2008);

Common Black Scoter, Melanitta nigra (AOU 2009);

Eurasian Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes (AOU 2010); and

Hispaniolan Greater Antillean Oriole, Icterus dominicensis (AOU 2010).

(8) Revise the common (English) names of nine species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment. These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, we reference the published source for the name change:

Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber, becomes American Flamingo (AOU 2008);

Greater Shearwater, Puffinus gravis, becomes Great Shearwater (AOU 2010);

Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus, becomes Eastern Whip-poor-

will (AOU 2010);

Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus, becomes Green Violetear (AOU 2008);

Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius, becomes Blue Rock-Thrush (Clements 2007);

Clay-colored Robin, Turdus grayi, becomes Clay-colored Thrush (AOU 2008);

White-throated Robin, Turdus assimilis, becomes White-throated Thrush (AOU 2008);

Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Ammodramus nelsoni, becomes Nelson's Sparrow (AOU 2009); and

Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus, becomes Saltmarsh Sparrow (AOU 2009).

(9) Revise the scientific names of 36 species to conform to the most recent nomenclatural treatment. These revisions do not change the protective status of any of these taxa, only the names by which they are known. In each case, we reference the AOU publication documenting the name change:

Larus philadelphia (Bonaparte's Gull) becomes Chroicocephalus philadelphia (AOU 2008);

Larus cirrocephalus (Gray-hooded Gull) becomes Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus (AOU 2008);

Larus ridibundus (Black-headed Gull) becomes Chroicocephalus ridibundus (AOU 2008);

Larus minutus (Little Gull) becomes Hydrocoloeus minutus (AOU 2008);

Larus atricilla (Laughing Gull) becomes Leucophaeus atricilla (AOU 2008);

Larus pipixcan (Franklin's Gull) becomes Leucophaeus pipixcan (AOU 2008);

Cyanocorax morio (Brown Jay) becomes Psilorhinus morio (AOU 2010);

Poecile hudsonica (Boreal Chickadee) becomes Poecile hudsonicus (AOU 2009);

Poecile cincta (Gray-headed Chickadee) becomes Poecile cinctus (AOU 2009);

Calcarius mccownii (McCown's Longspur) becomes Rhynchophanes mccownii (AOU 2010);

Vermivora pinus (Blue-winged Warbler) becomes Vermivora cyanoptera (AOU 2010);

Vermivora peregrina (Tennessee Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis peregrina (AOU 2010);

Vermivora celata (Orange-crowned Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis celata (AOU 2010);

Vermivora ruficapilla (Nashville Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis ruficapilla (AOU 2010);

Vermivora virginiae (Virginia's Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis virginiae (AOU 2010);

Vermivora crissalis (Colima Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis crissalis (AOU 2010);

Vermivora luciae (Lucy's Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis luciae (AOU 2010);

Parula superciliosa (Crescent-chested Warbler) becomes Oreothlypis superciliosa (AOU 2010);

Seiurus noveboracensis (Northern Waterthrush) becomes Parkesia noveboracensis (AOU 2010);

Seiurus motacilla (Louisiana Waterthrush) becomes Parkesia motacilla (AOU 2010);

Pipilo fuscus (Canyon Towhee) becomes Melozone fusca (AOU 2010);

Pipilo crissalis (California Towhee) becomes Melozone crissalis (AOU 2010);

Pipilo aberti (Abert's Towhee) becomes Melozone aberti (AOU 2010);

Aimophila carpalis (Rufous-winged Sparrow) becomes Peucaea carpalis (AOU 2010);

Aimophila botterii (Botteri's Sparrow) becomes Peucaea botterii (AOU 2010);

Aimophila cassinii (Cassin's Sparrow) becomes Peucaea cassinii (AOU 2010);

Aimophila aestivalis (Bachman's Sparrow) becomes Peucaea aestivalis (AOU 2010);

Aimophila quinquestriata (Five-striped Sparrow) becomes Amphispiza quinquestriata (AOU 2010);

Carduelis flammea (Common Redpoll) becomes Acanthis flammea (AOU 2009);

Carduelis hornemanni (Hoary Redpoll) becomes Acanthis hornemanni (AOU 2009);

Carduelis spinus (Eurasian Siskin) becomes Spinus spinus (AOU 2009);

Carduelis pinus (Pine Siskin) becomes Spinus pinus (AOU 2009);

Carduelis psaltria (Lesser Goldfinch) becomes Spinus psaltria (AOU 2009);

Carduelis lawrencei (Lawrence's Goldfinch) becomes Spinus lawrencei (AOU 2009);

Carduelis tristis (American Goldfinch) becomes Spinus tristis (AOU 2009); and

Carduelis sinica (Oriental Greenfinch) becomes Chloris sinica (AOU 2009).

For ease of comparison, changes are summarized in the following table (numbers reference the categories treated above). Species whose names have been revised (categories 2, 3, 8, and 9) appear in both the left-hand column (old name removed) and right-hand column (new name added), as are species that have been added based on taxonomic splits (category 6) of extralimital species that have been removed (category 7).


Removed (taxonomically) Added (taxonomically)


Spot-billed Duck, Anas poecilorhyncha Eastern Spot-billed Duck, Anas

(7). zonorhyncha (6).

Common Black Scoter, Melanitta nigra Black Scoter, Melanitta

(7). americana (6).

Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber American Flamingo,

(8). Phoenicopterus ruber (8).

Parkinson's Petrel, Procellaria

parkinsoni (4).

Greater Shearwater, Puffinus gravis (8) Great Shearwater, Puffinus

gravis (8).

Polynesian Storm-Petrel, Nesofregata Polynesian Storm-Petrel,

fuliginosa (2). Nesofregetta fuliginosa (2).

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Polynesian Storm-Petrel, Nesofregetta Polynesian Storm-Petrel,

fuiginosa (3). Nesofregetta fuliginosa (3).

Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel,

Oceanodroma monorhis (4).

Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus

furcatus (4).

Bonaparte's Gull, Larus philadelphia Bonaparte's Gull,

(9). Chroicocephalus philadelphia


Gray-hooded Gull, Larus cirrocephalus Gray-hooded Gull,

(9). Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus


Black-headed Gull, Larus ridibundus (9) Black-headed Gull,

Chroicocephalus ridibundus


Little Gull, Larus minutus (9)......... Little Gull, Hydrocoloeus

minutus (9).

Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla (9)..... Laughing Gull, Leucophaeus

atricilla (9).

Franklin's Gull, Larus pipixcan (9).... Franklin's Gull, Leucophaeus

pipixcan (9).

Royal Tern, Thalleseus maximus (2)..... Royal Tern, Thalasseus maximus


Sandwich Tern, Thalleseus sandvicensis Sandwich Tern, Thalasseus

(2). sandvicensis (2).

Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata


Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus Eastern Whip-poor-will,

(8). Caprimulgus vociferus (8).

Mexican Whip-poor-will,

Caprimulgus arizonae (6).

Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus Green Violetear, Colibri

(8). thalassinus (8).

White-crested Elaenia, Elaenia

albiceps (4).

Crowned Slaty Flycatcher,


aurantioatrocristatus (4).

Black-capped Vireo, Vireo atricapillus Black-capped Vireo, Vireo

(2, 3). atricapilla (2, 3).

Brown Jay, Cyanocorax morio (9)........ Brown Jay, Psilorhinus morio


Boreal Chickadee, Poecile hudsonica (9) Boreal Chickadee, Poecile

hudsonicus (9).

Gray-headed Chickadee, Poecile cincta Gray-headed Chickadee, Poecile

(9). cinctus (9).

Sinaloa Wren, Thryothorus

sinaloa (4).

Pacific Wren, Troglodytes

pacificus (6).

Eurasian Winter Wren, Troglodytes Winter Wren, Troglodytes

troglodytes (7). hiemalis (6).

Wood Warbler, Phylloscopus siilatrix Wood Warbler, Phylloscopus

(2). sibilatrix (2).

Pallas's Leaf-Warbler,

Phylloscopus proregulus (4).

Lanceolated Warbler, Locustella Lanceolated Warbler, Locustella

lanceoloata (2). lanceolata (2).

Wrentit, Chamaea fasciata (5).

Sedge Warbler, Acrocephalus

schoenobaenus (4).

Mugimaki Flycatcher, Ficedula

mugimaki (1).

Taiga Flycatcher, Ficedula

albicilla (1).

Dark-sided Flycatcher,

Muscicapa sibirica (1).

Asian Brown Flyctcher,

Muscicapa dauurica (1).

Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa

striata (1).

Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius Blue Rock-Thrush, Monticola

(8). solitarius (8).

Rufous-tailed Robin, Luscinia

sibilans (4).

Clay-colored Robin, Turdus grayi (8)... Clay-colored Thrush, Turdus

grayi (8).

White-throated Robin, Turdus assimilis White-throated Thrush, Turdus

(8). assimilis (8).

McCown's Longspur, Calcarius mccownii McCown's Longspur,

(9). Rhynchophanes mccownii (9).

Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora pinus Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora

(9). cyanoptera (9).

Tennessee Warbler, Vermivora peregrina Tennessee Warbler, Oreothlypis

(9). peregrina (9).

Orange-crowned Warbler, Vermivora Orange-crowned Warbler,

celata (9). Oreothlypis celata (9).

Nashville Warbler, Vermivora Nashville Warbler, Oreothlypis

ruficapilla (9). ruficapilla (9).

Virginia's Warbler, Vermivora virginiae Virginia's Warbler, Oreothlypis

(9). virginiae (9).

Colima Warbler, Vermivora crissalis (9) Colima Warbler, Oreothlypis

crissalis (9).

Lucy's Warbler, Vermivora luciae (9)... Lucy's Warbler, Oreothlypis

luciae (9).

Crescent-chested Warbler, Parula Crescent-chested Warbler,

superciliosa (9). Oreothlypis superciliosa (9).

Northern Waterthrush, Seiurus Northern Waterthrush, Parkesia

noveboracensis (9). noveboracensis (9).

Louisiana Waterthrush, Seiurus Louisiana Waterthrush, Parkesia

motacilla (9). motacilla (9).

Yellow-faced Grassquit, Tiaris olivacea Yellow-faced Grassquit, Tiaris

(3). olivaceus (3).

Canyon Towhee, Pipilo fuscus (9)....... Canyon Towhee, Melozone fusca


California Towhee, Pipilo crissalis (9) California Towhee, Melozone

crissalis (9).

Abert's Towhee, Pipilo aberti (9)...... Abert's Towhee, Melozone aberti


Rufous-winged Sparrow, Aimophila Rufous-winged Sparrow, Peucaea

carpalis (9). carpalis (9).

Botteri's Sparrow, Aimophila botterii Botteri's Sparrow, Peucaea

(9). botterii (9).

Cassin's Sparrow, Aimophila cassinii Cassin's Sparrow, Peucaea

(9). cassinii (9).

Bachman's Sparrow, Aimophila aestivalis Bachman's Sparrow, Peucaea

(9). aestivalis (9).

Five-striped Sparrow, Aimophila Five-striped Sparrow,

quinquestriata (9). Amphispiza quinquestriata (9).

Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Nelson's Sparrow, Ammodramus

Ammodramus nelsoni (8). nelsoni (8).

Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Saltmarsh Sparrow, Ammodramus

Ammodramus caudacutus (8). caudacutus (8).

Yellow-browed Bunting, Emberiza

chrysophrys (4).

Hispaniolan Greater Antillean Oriole, Puerto Rican Oriole, Icterus

Icterus dominicensis (7). portoricensis (6).

Common Redpoll, Carduelis flammea (9).. Common Redpoll, Acanthis

flammea (9).

Hoary Redpoll, Carduelis hornemanni (9) Hoary Redpoll, Acanthis

hornemanni (9).

Eurasian Siskin, Carduelis spinus (9).. Eurasian Siskin, Spinus spinus


Pine Siskin, Carduelis pinus (9)....... Pine Siskin, Spinus pinus (9).

Lesser Goldfinch, Carduelis psaltria Lesser Goldfinch, Spinus

(9). psaltria (9).

Lawrence's Goldfinch, Carduelis Lawrence's Goldfinch, Spinus

lawrencei (9). lawrencei (9).

American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis American Goldfinch, Spinus

(9). tristis (9).

Oriental Greenfinch, Carduelis sinica Oriental Greenfinch, Chloris

(9). sinica (9).


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How do the changes implemented here differ from those discussed in the proposed rule?

The scientific name of one species spelled erroneously in the proposed rule is corrected to conform to the AOU Check-list (1998) and supplements:

Black-capped Vireo, Vireo atricapillus becomes Vireo atricapilla.

How is the list of migratory birds organized?

The species are listed in two formats to suit the needs of different segments of the public: alphabetically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(1) and taxonomically in 50 CFR 10.13(c)(2). In the alphabetical listing, species are listed by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the English group name. This format, similar to that used in modern telephone directories, is most useful to members of the lay public. In the taxonomic listing, species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the English name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily. This format follows the sequence adopted by the AOU (1998, 2010) and is most useful to ornithologists and other scientists.

What species are not protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?

The MBTA does not apply to:

(1) Nonnative species introduced into the United States or its territories by means of intentional or unintentional human assistance that belong to families or groups covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions, in accordance with the MBTRA. See 70 FR 12710 (March 15, 2005) for a partial list of nonnative, human-introduced bird species in this category. Note, though, that native species that are introduced into parts of the United States where they are not native are still protected under the MBTA regardless of where they occur in the United States or its territories.

(2) Nonnative, human-introduced species that belong to families or groups not covered by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions, including Tinamidae (tinamous), Cracidae (chachalacas), Megapodiidae (megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Turnicidae (buttonquails), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Pteroclididae (sandgrouse), Psittacidae (parrots), Dicruridae (drongos), Rhamphastidae (toucans), Musophagidae (turacos), Bucerotidae (hornbills), Bucorvidae (ground-hornbills), Pycnonotidae (bulbuls), Pittidae (pittas), Irenidae (fairy-bluebirds), Timaliidae (babblers), Zosteropidae (white-eyes), Sturnidae (starlings; except as listed in the Japanese Convention), Passeridae (Old World sparrows), Ploceidae (weavers), Estrildidae (estrildid finches), and numerous other families not currently represented in the United States or its territories.

(3) Native species that belong to families or groups represented in the United States, but which are not expressly mentioned by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian Conventions, including the Megapodiidae (megapodes), Phasianidae (grouse, ptarmigan, and turkeys), Odontophoridae (New World quail), Burhinidae (thick-knees), Glareolidae (pratincoles), Psittacidae (parrots), Todidae (todies), Meliphagidae (honeyeaters), Monarchidae (monarch flycatchers elepaios), Zosteropidae (white-eyes), and Coerebidae (bananaquit). It should be noted that this rule supersedes the 70 FR 12710 notice to the extent that they are inconsistent. Specifically, the 1996 amendment to the Canadian Convention included the family Muscicapidae (Old World flycatchers). Thus, all members of the Muscicapidae family are now included on this list. In addition, the Wrentit is now considered a member of the Sylviidae family rather than the Timaliidae family and is now included on this list.

Partial lists of the species included in categories 2 and 3 are available at

Responses to Public Comments

On April 26, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 23428) a proposed rule to revise the list of migratory birds at 50 CFR 10.13. We solicited public comments on the proposed rule for 90 days, ending on July 25, 2011.

We received 7 comments in response to the proposed rule; 5 were from agencies, and 2 were from private individuals. The following text discusses the substantive comments we received and provides our responses to them.

Comment: One individual indicated that Brown Hawk-Owl, and the 10 other species we proposed to add based on new distributional records (Category 4), should not be added because they are either extremely rare vagrants or were moved by humans. The commenter further pointed out that the MBTA loses biological and ecological credibility when species are added that do not naturally occur in the United States or its territories, and pointed to the Eurasian Kestrel as one example.

Response: In 2004, the Migratory Bird Treaty Reform Act (MBTRA; Pub. L. 108-447) amended the MBTA. While the primary purpose of the MBTRA was to eliminate protection for introduced species, it also defined native species as those ``occurring in the United States or its territories as a result of natural biological or ecological processes.'' Vagrancy is a natural biological process, so these species are protected under the MBTA.

There is credible evidence to support our contention that these species have occurred in the United States as natural vagrants unhindered by human intervention. The AOU and other bird record committees take human intervention into account whenever they evaluate such records. Several of these species, including the Brown Hawk-Owl, have occurred in some of the remotest parts of Alaska, and are most unlikely to have been moved there by humans. Furthermore, multiple records of Eurasian Kestrel have been accepted from Western Alaska, and at scattered locations across North America, by the AOU and other competent scientific authorities.

Comment: The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission urged the Service to carefully consider the implications to State regulations when making recommendations, and ensure that they do not occur so frequently as to become burdensome. Specifically, they point out that the split of the order Accipitriformes from the Falconiformes will necessitate a change in State falconry regulations.

Response: The Service appreciates the State's concern regarding changes to Federal regulations that affect States, and we make a concerted effort to work closely with the States through the Flyway Councils. To comply with the intent of the migratory bird treaties and the MBTA, we are obligated to update the list at intervals. However, the List of Migratory Birds has been updated only twice since 1985, which is not frequently enough to stay current with changes in bird taxonomy. Consequently, we intend to update this list on a 5-year cycle to coincide with updates to the Birds of Conservation Concern, thus balancing the frequency of updates with the frequency of changes in bird taxonomy. In this update, taxonomic changes at the Order level did not change which species are protected under the MBTA, as the species within those families were previously protected. Furthermore, this is the first change we have made to the

Page 65849

Falconiformes since the families within that Order were first protected in 1972.

Comment: The Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife (IDFW) was pleased that the Service intends to continue to treat cackling geese as Canada geese, pointing out that hunting management of white-cheeked geese could become more difficult if they were split. The IDFW also pointed out that the Mississippi Flyway Council is trying to simplify hunting regulations for Canada geese, and splitting them into two species for management purposes could cause progress toward simplification to stall.

Response: The Service recognizes the management concerns referred to by the commenter. While we appreciate the complexities of white-

cheeked goose management, our decision to continue to include the Cackling Goose within the listing for Canada Goose is based on lingering uncertainty regarding their taxonomic relationship. Work is currently being conducted in Alaska and northern Canada to resolve that uncertainty. We will consider new information when it is available, at which time we may reconsider our decision. In any case, regardless of name, goose subspecies identified as Cackling Goose by the AOU are currently protected under the MBTA as Canada Goose.

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review (Executive Order 12866)

Executive Order (EO) 12866 provides that the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management and Budget will review all significant rules. OIRA has determined that this rule is not significant.

EO 13563 reaffirms the principles of EO 12866, while calling for improvements in the nation's regulatory system to promote predictability, to reduce uncertainty, and to use the best, most innovative, and least burdensome tools for achieving regulatory ends. EO 13563 directs agencies to consider regulatory approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public where these approaches are relevant, feasible, and consistent with regulatory objectives.

EO 13563 emphasizes further that regulations must be based on the best available science and that the rulemaking process must allow for public participation and an open exchange of ideas. We have developed this rule in a manner consistent with these requirements.

Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.)

Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-121)), whenever an agency is required to publish a notice of rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., small businesses, small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of an agency certifies the rule does not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.

SBREFA amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act to require Federal agencies to provide the statement of the factual basis for certifying that a rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. We have examined this rule's potential effects on small entities as required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and have determined that this action will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities, because we are simply updating the list of migratory bird species protected under the Conventions. Consequently, we certify that because this rule does not have a significant economic effect on a substantial number of small entities, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required.

This rule is not a major rule under SBREFA (5 U.S.C. 804(2)). It does not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities.

  1. This rule does not have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more.

  2. This rule does not cause a major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual industries, Federal, State, or local government agencies, or geographic regions.

  3. This rule does not have significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based enterprises.

    Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.), we have determined the following:

  4. This rule does not ``significantly or uniquely'' affect small governments. A small government agency plan is not required. Actions under the regulation do not affect small government activities in any significant way.

  5. This rule does not produce a Federal mandate of $100 million or greater in any year; i.e., it is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.


    In accordance with Executive Order 12630, the rule does not have significant takings implications. This rule does not contain a provision for taking of private property. Therefore, a takings implication assessment is not required.


    This rule does not have sufficient Federalism effects to warrant preparation of a Federalism summary impact statement under Executive Order 13132. It does not interfere with the States' ability to manage themselves or their funds. No significant economic impacts are expected to result from the updating of the list of migratory bird species.

    Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with Executive Order 12988, the Office of the Solicitor has determined that the rule does not unduly burden the judicial system and meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of the Order.

    Paperwork Reduction Act

    We examined this rule under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). There are no new information collection requirements associated with this rule. We do not require any new permits, reports, or recordkeeping in this rule.

    National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    Given that the revision of 50 CFR 10.13 is strictly administrative in nature and will have no or minor environmental effects, it is categorically excluded from further NEPA requirements (43 CFR 46.210(i)).

    Endangered Species Act (ESA)

    Seventy-four of the species on the List of Migratory Birds are also designated as endangered or threatened in all or some portion of their U.S. range under provisions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-44; 50 CFR 17.11). No legal complications arise from the dual listing as the two lists are developed under separate authorities and for different purposes. Because the rule is strictly administrative in nature, it has no effect on threatened or endangered species. It does not require ESA consultation.

    Page 65850

    Government-to-Government Relationship With Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we have evaluated potential effects on federally recognized Indian tribes and have determined that there are no potential effects. The revisions to existing regulations in this rule are purely administrative in nature and do not interfere with the tribes' ability to manage themselves or their funds or to regulate migratory bird activities on tribal lands.

    Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (Executive Order 13211)

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued Executive Order 13211 addressing regulations that significantly affect energy supply, distribution, and use. Executive Order 13211 requires agencies to prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. Because this rule only affects the listing of protected species in the United States, it is not a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, and does not significantly affect energy supplies, distribution, or use. Therefore, this action is not a significant energy action and no Statement of Energy Effects is required.

    References Cited

    A complete list of all references cited is available upon request (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT above).

    List of Subjects

    50 CFR Part 10

    Exports, Fish, Imports, Law enforcement, Plants, Transportation, Wildlife.

    50 CFR Part 21

    Exports, Hunting, Imports, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Transportation, Wildlife.

    Regulation Promulgation

    For the reasons discussed in the preamble, we amend title 50, chapter I, subchapter B, parts 10 and 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as follows:



    1. The authority citation for part 10 continues to read as follows:

      Authority: 18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 703-712; 16 U.S.C. 668a-d; 19 U.S.C. 1202; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1543; 16 U.S.C. 1361-1384, 1401-1407; 16 U.S.C. 742a-742j-l; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378.


    2. Revise Sec. 10.13 to read as follows:

      Sec. 10.13 List of Migratory Birds.

      (a) Legal authority for this list. The legal authorities for this list are the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA; 16 U.S.C. 703-712), the Fish and Wildlife Improvement Act of 1978 (16 U.S.C. 742l), and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742a-742j). The MBTA implements Conventions between the United States and four neighboring countries for the protection of migratory birds, as follows:

      (1) Canada: Convention between the United States and Great Britain on behalf of Canada for the Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, 39 Stat. 1702 (T.S. No. 628), as amended;

      (2) Mexico: Convention between the United States and Mexico for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, February 7, 1936, 50 Stat. 1311 (T.S. No. 912), as amended;

      (3) Japan: Convention between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Birds in Danger of Extinction, and Their Environment, March 4, 1972, 25 U.S.T. 3329 (T.I.A.S. No. 7990); and

      (4) Russia: Convention between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning the Conservation of Migratory Birds and Their Environment, November 19, 1976, 20 U.S.T. 4647 (T.I.A.S. No. 9073).

      (b) Purpose of this list. The purpose is to inform the public of the species protected by regulations that enforce the terms of the MBTA. These regulations, found in parts 10, 20, and 21 of this chapter, cover most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds.

      (c) What species are protected as migratory birds? Species protected as migratory birds are listed in two formats to suit the varying needs of the user: Alphabetically in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and taxonomically in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists' Union's Check-list of North American birds (1998, as amended through 2010). For species not treated by the AOU Check-list, we generally follow The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World (Clements 2007).

      (1) Alphabetical listing. Species are listed alphabetically by common (English) group names, with the scientific name of each species following the common name.

      ACCENTOR, Siberian, Prunella montanella

      AKEKEE, Loxops caeruleirostris

      AKEPA, Loxops coccineus

      AKIALOA, Greater, Hemignathus ellisianus

      AKIAPOLAAU, Hemignathus munroi

      AKIKIKI, Oreomystis bairdi

      AKOHEKOHE, Palmeria dolei

      ALAUAHIO, Maui, Paroreomyza montana

      Oahu, Paroreomyza maculata

      ALBATROSS, Black-browed, Thalassarche melanophris

      Black-footed, Phoebastria nigripes

      Laysan, Phoebastria immutabilis

      Light-mantled, Phoebetria palpebrata

      Short-tailed, Phoebastria albatrus

      Shy, Thalassarche cauta

      Wandering, Diomedea exulans

      Yellow-nosed, Thalassarche chlororhynchos

      AMAKIHI, Hawaii, Hemignathus virens

      Kauai, Hemignathus kauaiensis

      Oahu, Hemignathus flavus

      ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga

      ANI, Groove-billed, Crotophaga sulcirostris

      Smooth-billed, Crotophaga ani

      ANIANIAU, Magumma parva

      APAPANE, Himatione sanguinea

      AUKLET, Cassin's, Ptychoramphus aleuticus

      Crested, Aethia cristatella

      Least, Aethia pusilla

      Parakeet, Aethia psittacula

      Rhinoceros, Cerorhinca monocerata

      Whiskered, Aethia pygmaea

      AVOCET, American, Recurvirostra americana

      BEAN-GOOSE, Taiga, Anser fabalis

      Tundra, Anser serrirostris

      BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Northern, Camptostoma imberbe

      BECARD, Rose-throated, Pachyramphus aglaiae

      BITTERN, American, Botaurus lentiginosus

      Black, Ixobrychus flavicollis

      Least, Ixobrychus exilis

      Schrenck's, Ixobrychus eurhythmus

      Yellow, Ixobrychus sinensis

      BLACK-HAWK, Common, Buteogallus anthracinus

      BLACKBIRD, Brewer's, Euphagus cyanocephalus

      Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus

      Rusty, Euphagus carolinus

      Tawny-shouldered, Agelaius humeralis

      Tricolored, Agelaius tricolor

      Yellow-headed, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus

      Yellow-shouldered, Agelaius xanthomus

      BLUEBIRD, Eastern, Sialia sialis

      Mountain, Sialia currucoides

      Western, Sialia mexicana

      BLUETAIL, Red-flanked, Tarsiger cyanurus

      BLUETHROAT, Luscinia svecica

      BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus

      Page 65851

      BOOBY, Blue-footed, Sula nebouxii

      Brown, Sula leucogaster

      Masked, Sula dactylatra

      Red-footed, Sula sula

      BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla

      BRANT, Branta bernicla

      BUFFLEHEAD, Bucephala albeola

      BULLFINCH, Eurasian, Pyrrhula pyrrhula

      Puerto Rican, Loxigilla portoricensis

      BUNTING, Blue, Cyanocompsa parellina

      Gray, Emberiza variabilis

      Indigo, Passerina cyanea

      Little, Emberiza pusilla

      Lark, Calamospiza melanocorys

      Lazuli, Passerina amoena

      McKay's, Plectrophenax hyperboreus

      Painted, Passerina ciris

      Pallas's, Emberiza pallasi

      Pine, Emberiza leucocephalos

      Reed, Emberiza schoeniclus

      Rustic, Emberiza rustica

      Snow, Plectrophenax nivalis

      Varied, Passerina versicolor

      Yellow-breasted, Emberiza aureola

      Yellow-browed, Emberiza chrysophrys

      Yellow-throated, Emberiza elegans

      BUSHTIT, Psaltriparus minimus

      CANVASBACK, Aythya valisineria

      CARACARA, Crested, Caracara cheriway

      CARDINAL, Northern, Cardinalis cardinalis

      CARIB, Green-throated, Eulampis holosericeus

      Purple-throated, Eulampis jugularis

      CATBIRD, Black, Melanoptila glabrirostris

      Gray, Dumetella carolinensis

      CHAFFINCH, Common, Fringilla coelebs

      CHAT, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens

      CHICKADEE, Black-capped, Poecile atricapillus

      Boreal, Poecile hudsonicus

      Carolina, Poecile carolinensis

      Chestnut-backed, Poecile rufescens

      Gray-headed, Poecile cinctus

      Mexican, Poecile sclateri

      Mountain, Poecile gambeli

      CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Caprimulgus carolinensis

      CONDOR, California, Gymnogyps californianus

      COOT, American, Fulica americana

      Caribbean, Fulica caribaea

      Eurasian, Fulica atra

      Hawaiian, Fulica alai

      CORMORANT, Brandt's, Phalacrocorax penicillatus

      Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auritus

      Great, Phalacrocorax carbo

      Little Pied, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos

      Neotropic, Phalacrocorax brasilianus

      Pelagic, Phalacrocorax pelagicus

      Red-faced, Phalacrocorax urile

      COWBIRD, Bronzed, Molothrus aeneus

      Brown-headed, Molothrus ater

      Shiny, Molothrus bonariensis

      CRAKE, Corn, Crex crex

      Paint-billed, Neocrex erythrops

      Spotless, Porzana tabuensis

      Yellow-breasted, Porzana flaviventer

      CRANE, Common, Grus grus

      Sandhill, Grus canadensis

      Whooping, Grus americana

      CREEPER, Brown, Certhia americana

      Hawaii, Oreomystis mana

      CROSSBILL, Red, Loxia curvirostra

      White-winged, Loxia leucoptera

      CROW, American, Corvus brachyrhynchos

      Fish, Corvus ossifragus

      Hawaiian, Corvus hawaiiensis

      Mariana, Corvus kubaryi

      Northwestern, Corvus caurinus

      Tamaulipas, Corvus imparatus

      White-necked, Corvus leucognaphalus

      CUCKOO, Black-billed, Coccyzus erythropthalmus

      Common, Cuculus canorus

      Mangrove, Coccyzus minor

      Oriental, Cuculus optatus

      Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus

      CURLEW, Bristle-thighed, Numenius tahitiensis

      Eskimo, Numenius borealis

      Eurasian, Numenius arquata

      Far Eastern, Numenius madagascariensis

      Little, Numenius minutus

      Long-billed, Numenius americanus

      DICKCISSEL, Spiza americana

      DIPPER, American, Cinclus mexicanus

      DOTTEREL, Eurasian, Charadrius morinellus

      DOVE, Inca, Columbina inca

      Mourning, Zenaida macroura

      White-tipped, Leptotila verreauxi

      White-winged, Zenaida asiatica

      Zenaida, Zenaida aurita

      DOVEKIE, Alle alle

      DOWITCHER, Long-billed, Limnodromus scolopaceus

      Short-billed, Limnodromus griseus

      DUCK, American Black, Anas rubripes

      Eastern Spot-billed, Anas zonorhyncha

      Falcated, Anas falcata

      Harlequin, Histrionicus histrionicus

      Hawaiian, Anas wyvilliana

      Laysan, Anas laysanensis

      Long-tailed, Clangula hyemalis

      Masked, Nomonyx dominicus

      Mottled, Anas fulvigula

      Muscovy, Cairina moschata

      Pacific Black, Anas superciliosa

      Ring-necked, Aythya collaris

      Ruddy, Oxyura jamaicensis

      Tufted, Aythya fuligula

      Wood, Aix sponsa

      DUNLIN, Calidris alpina

      EAGLE, Bald, Haliaeetus leucocephalus

      Golden, Aquila chrysaetos

      White-tailed, Haliaeetus albicilla

      EGRET, Cattle, Bubulcus ibis

      Chinese, Egretta eulophotes

      Great, Ardea alba

      Intermediate, Mesophoyx intermedia

      Little, Egretta garzetta

      Reddish, Egretta rufescens

      Snowy, Egretta thula

      EIDER, Common, Somateria mollissima

      King, Somateria spectabilis

      Spectacled, Somateria fischeri

      Steller's, Polysticta stelleri

      ELAENIA, Caribbean, Elaenia martinica

      Greenish, Myiopagis viridicata

      White-crested, Elaenia albiceps

      EMERALD, Puerto Rican, Chlorostilbon maugaeus

      EUPHONIA, Antillean, Euphonia musica

      FALCON, Aplomado, Falco femoralis

      Peregrine, Falco peregrinus

      Prairie, Falco mexicanus

      Red-footed, Flaco vespertinus

      FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris

      FINCH, Cassin's, Carpodacus cassinii

      House, Carpodacus mexicanus

      Laysan, Telespiza cantans

      Nihoa, Telespiza ultima

      Purple, Carpodacus purpureus

      FLAMINGO, American, Phoenicopterus ruber

      FLICKER, Gilded, Colaptes chrysoides

      Northern, Colaptes auratus

      FLYCATCHER, Acadian, Empidonax virescens

      Alder, Empidonax alnorum

      Ash-throated, Myiarchus cinerascens

      Asian Brown, Muscicapa dauurica

      Brown-crested, Myiarchus tyrannulus

      Buff-breasted, Empidonax fulvifrons

      Cordilleran, Empidonax occidentalis

      Crowned Slaty, Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus

      Dark-sided, Muscicapa sibirica

      Dusky, Empidonax oberholseri

      Dusky-capped, Myiarchus tuberculifer

      Fork-tailed, Tyrannus savana

      Gray, Empidonax wrightii

      Gray-streaked, Muscicapa griseisticta

      Great Crested, Myiarchus crinitus

      Hammond's, Empidonax hammondii

      La Sagra's, Myiarchus sagrae

      Least, Empidonax minimus

      Mugimaki, Ficedula mugimaki

      Narcissus, Ficedula narcissina

      Nutting's, Myiarchus nuttingi

      Olive-sided, Contopus cooperi

      Pacific-slope, Empidonax difficilis

      Piratic, Legatus leucophalus

      Puerto Rican, Myiarchus antillarum

      Scissor-tailed, Tyrannus forficatus

      Social, Myiozetetes similis

      Spotted, Muscicapa striata

      Sulphur-bellied, Myiodynastes luteiventris

      Taiga, Ficedula albicilla

      Tufted, Mitrephanes phaeocercus

      Variegated, Empidonomus varius

      Vermilion, Pyrocephalus rubinus

      Page 65852

      Willow, Empidonax traillii

      Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris

      FOREST-FALCON, Collared, Micrastur semitorquatus

      FRIGATEBIRD, Great, Fregata minor

      Lesser, Fregata ariel

      Magnificent, Fregata magnificens

      FROG-HAWK, Gray, Accipiter soloensis

      FRUIT-DOVE, Crimson-crowned, Ptilinopus porphyraceus

      Many-colored, Ptilinopus perousii

      Mariana, Ptilinopus roseicapilla

      FULMAR, Northern, Fulmarus glacialis

      GADWALL, Anas strepera

      GALLINULE, Azure, Porphyrio flavirostris

      Purple, Porphyrio martinica

      GANNET, Northern, Morus bassanus

      GARGANEY, Anas querquedula

      GNATCATCHER, Black-capped, Polioptila nigriceps

      Black-tailed, Polioptila melanura

      Blue-gray, Polioptila caerulea

      California, Polioptila californica

      GODWIT, Bar-tailed, Limosa lapponica

      Black-tailed, Limosa limosa

      Hudsonian, Limosa haemastica

      Marbled, Limosa fedoa

      GOLDEN-PLOVER, American, Pluvialis dominica

      European, Pluvialis apricaria

      Pacific, Pluvialis fulva

      GOLDENEYE, Barrow's, Bucephala islandica

      Common, Bucephala clangula

      GOLDFINCH, American, Spinus tristis

      Lawrence's, Spinus lawrencei

      Lesser, Spinus psaltria

      GOOSE, Barnacle, Branta leucopsis

      Canada, Branta canadensis (including Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii)

      Emperor, Chen canagica

      Greater White-fronted, Anser albifrons

      Hawaiian, Branta sandvicensis

      Lesser White-fronted, Anser erythropus

      Ross's, Chen rossii

      Snow, Chen caerulescens

      GOSHAWK, Northern, Accipiter gentilis

      GRACKLE, Boat-tailed, Quiscalus major

      Common, Quiscalus quiscula

      Great-tailed, Quiscalus mexicanus

      Greater Antillean, Quiscalus niger

      GRASSHOPPER-WARBLER, Middendorff's, Locustella ochotensis

      GRASSQUIT, Black-faced, Tiaris bicolor

      Yellow-faced, Tiaris olivaceus

      GREBE, Clark's, Aechmophorus clarkii

      Eared, Podiceps nigricollis

      Horned, Podiceps auritus

      Least, Tachybaptus dominicus

      Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps

      Red-necked, Podiceps grisegena

      Western, Aechmophorus occidentalis

      GREENFINCH, Oriental, Chloris sinica

      GREENSHANK, Common, Tringa nebularia

      Nordmann's, Tringa guttifer

      GROSBEAK, Black-headed, Pheucticus melanocephalus

      Blue, Passerina caerulea

      Crimson-collared, Rhodothraupis celaeno

      Evening, Coccothraustes vespertinus

      Pine, Pinicola enucleator

      Rose-breasted, Pheucticus ludovicianus

      Yellow, Pheucticus chrysopeplus

      GROUND-DOVE, Common, Columbina passerina

      Friendly, Gallicolumba stairi

      Ruddy, Columbina talpacoti

      White-throated, Gallicolumba xanthonura

      GUILLEMOT, Black, Cepphus grylle

      Pigeon, Cepphus columba

      GULL, Belcher's, Larus belcheri

      Black-headed, Chroicocephalus ridibundus

      Black-tailed, Larus crassirostris

      Bonaparte's, Chroicocephalus philadelphia

      California, Larus californicus

      Franklin's, Leucophaeus pipixcan

      Glaucous, Larus hyperboreus

      Glaucous-winged, Larus glaucescens

      Gray-hooded, Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus

      Great Black-backed, Larus marinus

      Heermann's, Larus heermanni

      Herring, Larus argentatus

      Iceland, Larus glaucoides

      Ivory, Pagophila eburnea

      Kelp, Larus dominicanus

      Laughing, Leucophaeus atricilla

      Lesser Black-backed, Larus fuscus

      Little, Hydrocoloeus minutus

      Mew, Larus canus

      Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis

      Ross's, Rhodostethia rosea

      Sabine's, Xema sabini

      Slaty-backed, Larus schistisagus

      Swallow-tailed, Creagrus furcatus

      Thayer's, Larus thayeri

      Western, Larus occidentalis

      Yellow-footed, Larus livens

      Yellow-legged, Larus michahellis

      GYRFALCON, Falco rusticolus

      HARRIER, Northern, Circus cyaneus

      HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes coccothraustes

      HAWK, Broad-winged, Buteo platypterus

      Cooper's, Accipiter cooperii

      Crane, Geranospiza caerulescens

      Ferruginous, Buteo regalis

      Gray, Buteo nitidus

      Harris's, Parabuteo unicinctus

      Hawaiian, Buteo solitarius

      Red-shouldered, Buteo lineatus

      Red-tailed, Buteo jamaicensis

      Roadside, Buteo magnirostris

      Rough-legged, Buteo lagopus

      Sharp-shinned, Accipiter striatus

      Short-tailed, Buteo brachyurus

      Swainson's, Buteo swainsoni

      White-tailed, Buteo albicaudatus

      Zone-tailed, Buteo albonotatus

      HAWK-CUCKOO, Hodgson's, Cuculus fugax

      HAWK-OWL, Brown, Ninox scutulata

      HERON, Gray, Ardea cinerea

      Great Blue, Ardea herodias

      Green, Butorides virescens

      Little Blue, Egretta caerulea

      Tricolored, Egretta tricolor

      HOBBY, Eurasian, Falco subbuteo

      HOOPOE, Eurasian, Upupa epops

      HOUSE-MARTIN, Common, Delichon urbicum

      HUMMINGBIRD, Allen's, Selasphorus sasin

      Anna's, Calypte anna

      Antillean Crested, Orthorhyncus cristatus

      Berylline, Amazilia beryllina

      Black-chinned, Archilochus alexandri

      Blue-throated, Lampornis clemenciae

      Broad-billed, Cynanthus latirostris

      Broad-tailed, Selasphorus platycercus

      Buff-bellied, Amazilia yucatanensis

      Bumblebee, Atthis heloisa

      Calliope, Stellula calliope

      Cinnamon, Amazilia rutila

      Costa's, Calypte costae

      Lucifer, Calothorax lucifer

      Magnificent, Eugenes fulgens

      Ruby-throated, Archilochus colubris

      Rufous, Selasphorus rufus

      Violet-crowned, Amazilia violiceps

      White-eared, Hylocharis leucotis

      Xantus's, Hylocharis xantusii

      IBIS, Glossy, Plegadis falcinellus

      Scarlet, Eudocimus ruber

      White, Eudocimus albus

      White-faced, Plegadis chihi

      IIWI, Vestiaria coccinea

      IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Pacific, Ducula pacifica

      JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria

      JACANA, Northern, Jacana spinosa

      JAEGER, Long-tailed, Stercorarius longicaudus

      Parasitic, Stercorarius parasiticus

      Pomarine, Stercorarius pomarinus

      JAY, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata

      Brown, Psilorhinus morio

      Gray, Perisoreus canadensis

      Green, Cyanocorax yncas

      Mexican, Aphelocoma ultramarina

      Pinyon, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus

      Steller's, Cyanocitta stelleri

      JUNCO, Dark-eyed, Junco hyemalis

      Yellow-eyed, Junco phaeonotus

      KAKAWAHIE, Paroreomyza flammea

      KAMAO, Myadestes myadestinus

      KESTREL, American, Falco sparverius

      Eurasian, Falco tinnunculus

      KILLDEER, Charadrius vociferus

      KINGBIRD, Cassin's, Tyrannus vociferans

      Couch's, Tyrannus couchii

      Eastern, Tyrannus tyrannus

      Gray, Tyrannus dominicensis

      Loggerhead, Tyrannus caudifasciatus

      Page 65853

      Thick-billed, Tyrannus crassirostris

      Tropical, Tyrannus melancholicus

      Western, Tyrannus verticalis

      KINGFISHER, Belted, Megaceryle alcyon

      Collared, Todirhamphus chloris

      Green, Chloroceryle americana

      Micronesian, Todirhamphus cinnamominus

      Ringed, Megaceryle torquata

      KINGLET, Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa

      Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula

      KISKADEE, Great, Pitangus sulphuratus

      KITE, Black, Milvus migrans

      Hook-billed, Chondrohierax uncinatus

      Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis

      Snail, Rostrhamus sociabilis

      Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus

      White-tailed, Elanus leucurus

      KITTIWAKE, Black-legged, Rissa tridactyla

      Red-legged, Rissa brevirostris

      KNOT, Great, Calidris tenuirostris

      Red, Calidris canutus

      LAPWING, Northern, Vanellus vanellus

      LARK, Horned, Eremophila alpestris

      Sky, Alauda arvensis

      LEAF-WARBLER, Pallas's, Phylloscopus proregulus

      LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna

      LIZARD-CUCKOO, Puerto Rican, Coccyzus vieilloti

      LONGSPUR, Chestnut-collared, Calcarius ornatus

      Lapland, Calcarius lapponicus

      McCown's, Rhynchophanes mccownii

      Smith's, Calcarius pictus

      LOON, Arctic, Gavia arctica

      Common, Gavia immer

      Pacific, Gavia pacifica

      Red-throated, Gavia stellata

      Yellow-billed, Gavia adamsii

      MAGPIE, Black-billed, Pica hudsonia

      Yellow-billed, Pica nuttalli

      MALLARD, Anas platyrhynchos

      MANGO, Antillean, Anthracothorax dominicus

      Green, Anthracothorax viridis

      Green-breasted, Anthracothorax prevostii

      MARTIN, Brown-chested, Progne tapera

      Caribbean, Progne dominicensis

      Cuban, Progne cryptoleuca

      Gray-breasted, Progne chalybea

      Purple, Progne subis

      Southern, Progne elegans

      MEADOWLARK, Eastern, Sturnella magna

      Western, Sturnella neglecta

      MERGANSER, Common, Mergus merganser

      Hooded, Lophodytes cucullatus

      Red-breasted, Mergus serrator

      MERLIN, Falco columbarius

      MILLERBIRD, Acrocephalus familiaris

      MOCKINGBIRD, Bahama, Mimus gundlachii

      Blue, Melanotis caerulescens

      Northern, Mimus polyglottos

      MOORHEN, Common, Gallinula chloropus

      MURRE, Common, Uria aalge

      Thick-billed, Uria lomvia

      MURRELET, Ancient, Synthliboramphus antiquus

      Craveri's, Synthliboramphus craveri

      Kittlitz's, Brachyramphus brevirostris

      Long-billed, Brachyramphus perdix

      Marbled, Brachyramphus marmoratus

      Xantus's, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus

      NEEDLETAIL, White-throated, Hirundapus caudacutus

      NIGHT-HERON, Black-crowned, Nycticorax nycticorax

      Japanese, Gorsachius goisagi

      Malayan, Gorsachius melanolophus

      Yellow-crowned, Nyctanassa violacea

      NIGHTHAWK, Antillean, Chordeiles gundlachii

      Common, Chordeiles minor

      Lesser, Chordeiles acutipennis

      NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Black-headed, Catharus mexicanus

      Orange-billed, Catharus aurantiirostris

      NIGHTJAR, Buff-collared, Caprimulgus ridgwayi

      Gray, Caprimulgus indicus

      Puerto Rican, Caprimulgus noctitherus

      NODDY, Black, Anous minutus

      Blue-gray, Procelsterna cerulea

      Brown, Anous stolidus

      NUKUPUU, Hemignathus lucidus

      NUTCRACKER, Clark's, Nucifraga columbiana

      NUTHATCH, Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla

      Pygmy, Sitta pygmaea

      Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis

      White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis

      OLOMAO, Myadestes lanaiensis

      OMAO, Myadestes obscurus

      ORIOLE, Altamira, Icterus gularis

      Audubon's, Icterus graduacauda

      Baltimore, Icterus galbula

      Black-vented, Icterus wagleri

      Bullock's, Icterus bullockii

      Hooded, Icterus cucullatus

      Orchard, Icterus spurius

      Puerto Rican, Icterus portoricensis

      Scott's, Icterus parisorum

      Streak-backed, Icterus pustulatus

      OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus

      OU, Psittirostra psittacea

      OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapilla

      OWL, Barn, Tyto alba

      Barred, Strix varia

      Boreal, Aegolius funereus

      Burrowing, Athene cunicularia

      Elf, Micrathene whitneyi

      Flammulated, Otus flammeolus

      Great Gray, Strix nebulosa

      Great Horned, Bubo virginianus

      Long-eared, Asio otus

      Mottled, Ciccaba virgata

      Northern Hawk, Surnia ulula

      Northern Saw-whet, Aegolius acadicus

      Short-eared, Asio flammeus

      Snowy, Bubo scandiacus

      Spotted, Strix occidentalis

      Stygian, Asio stygius

      OYSTERCATCHER, American, Haematopus palliatus

      Black, Haematopus bachmani

      Eurasian, Haematopus ostralegus

      PALILA, Loxioides bailleui

      PALM-SWIFT, Antillean, Tachornis phoenicobia

      PARROTBILL, Maui, Pseudonestor xanthophrys

      PARULA, Northern, Parula americana

      Tropical, Parula pitiayumi

      PAURAQUE, Common, Nyctidromus albicollis

      PELICAN, American White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

      Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis

      PETREL, Bermuda, Pterodroma cahow

      Black-capped, Pterodroma hasitata

      Black-winged, Pterodroma nigripennis

      Bonin, Pterodroma hypoleuca

      Bulwer's, Bulweria bulwerii

      Cook's, Pterodroma cookii

      Gould's, Pterodroma leucoptera

      Great-winged, Pterodroma macroptera

      Hawaiian, Pterodroma sandwichensis

      Herald, Pterodroma arminjoniana

      Jouanin's, Bulweria fallax

      Juan Fernandez, Pterodroma externa

      Kermadec, Pterodroma neglecta

      Mottled, Pterodroma inexpectata

      Murphy's, Pterodroma ultima

      Parkinson's, Procellaria parkinsoni

      Phoenix, Pterodroma alba

      Stejneger's, Pterodroma longirostris

      Tahiti, Pterodroma rostrata

      White-necked, Pterodroma cervicalis

      PEWEE, Cuban, Contopus caribaeus

      Greater, Contopus pertinax

      Hispaniolan, Contopus hispaniolensis

      Lesser Antillean, Contopus latirostris

      PHAINOPEPLA, Phainopepla nitens

      PHALAROPE, Red, Phalaropus fulicarius

      Red-necked, Phalaropus lobatus

      Wilson's, Phalaropus tricolor

      PHOEBE, Black, Sayornis nigricans

      Eastern, Sayornis phoebe

      Say's, Sayornis saya

      PIGEON, Band-tailed, Patagioenas fasciata

      Plain, Patagioenas inornata

      Red-billed, Patagioenas flavirostris

      Scaly-naped, Patagioenas squamosa

      White-crowned, Patagioenas leucocephala

      PINTAIL, Northern, Anas acuta

      White-cheeked, Anas bahamensis

      PIPIT, American, Anthus rubescens

      Olive-backed, Anthus hodgsoni

      Pechora, Anthus gustavi

      Page 65854

      Red-throated, Anthus cervinus

      Sprague's, Anthus spragueii

      Tree, Anthus trivialis

      PLOVER, Black-bellied, Pluvialis squatarola

      Collared, Charadrius collaris

      Common Ringed, Charadrius hiaticula

      Little Ringed, Charadrius dubius

      Mountain, Charadrius montanus

      Piping, Charadrius melodus

      Semipalmated, Charadrius semipalmatus

      Snowy, Charadrius alexandrinus

      Wilson's, Charadrius wilsonia

      POCHARD, Baer's, Aythya baeri

      Common, Aythya ferina

      POND-HERON, Chinese, Ardeola bacchus

      POORWILL, Common, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii

      POO-ULI, Melamprosops phaeosoma

      PUAIOHI, Myadestes palmeri

      PUFFIN, Atlantic, Fratercula arctica

      Horned, Fratercula corniculata

      Tufted, Fratercula cirrhata

      PYGMY-OWL, Ferruginous, Glaucidium brasilianum

      Northern, Glaucidium gnoma

      PYRRHULOXIA, Cardinalis sinuatus

      QUAIL-DOVE, Bridled, Geotrygon mystacea

      Key West, Geotrygon chrysia

      Ruddy, Geotrygon montana

      QUETZEL, Eared, Euptilotis neoxenus

      RAIL, Black, Laterallus jamaicensis

      Buff-banded, Gallirallus philippensis

      Clapper, Rallus longirostris

      Guam, Gallirallus owstoni

      King, Rallus elegans

      Spotted, Pardirallus maculatus

      Virginia, Rallus limicola

      Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis

      RAVEN, Chihuahuan, Corvus cryptoleucus

      Common, Corvus corax

      RAZORBILL, Alca torda

      REDHEAD, Aythya americana

      REDPOLL, Common, Acanthis flammea

      Hoary, Acanthis hornemanni

      REDSHANK, Spotted, Tringa erythropus

      REDSTART, American, Setophaga ruticilla

      Painted, Myioborus pictus

      Slate-throated, Myioborus miniatus

      REED-WARBLER, Nightingale, Acrocephalus luscinia

      REEF-EGRET, Pacific, Egretta sacra

      REEF-HERON, Western, Egretta gularis

      ROADRUNNER, Greater, Geococcyx californianus

      ROBIN, American, Turdus migratorius

      Rufous-backed, Turdus rufopalliatus

      Rufous-tailed, Luscinia sibilans

      Siberian Blue, Luscinia cyane

      ROCK-THRUSH, Blue, Monticola solitarius

      ROSEFINCH, Common, Carpodacus erythrinus

      ROSY-FINCH, Black, Leucosticte atrata

      Brown-capped, Leucosticte australis

      Gray-crowned, Leucosticte tephrocotis

      RUBYTHROAT, Siberian, Luscinia calliope

      RUFF, Philomachus pugnax

      SANDERLING, Calidris alba

      SANDPIPER, Baird's, Calidris bairdii

      Broad-billed, Limicola falcinellus

      Buff-breasted, Tryngites subruficollis

      Common, Actitis hypoleucos

      Curlew, Calidris ferruginea

      Green, Tringa ochropus

      Least, Calidris minutilla

      Marsh, Tringa stagnatilis

      Pectoral, Calidris melanotos

      Purple, Calidris maritima

      Rock, Calidris ptilocnemis

      Semipalmated, Calidris pusilla

      Sharp-tailed, Calidris acuminata

      Solitary, Tringa solitaria

      Spoon-billed, Eurynorhynchus pygmeus

      Spotted, Actitis macularius

      Stilt, Calidris himantopus

      Terek, Xenus cinereus

      Upland, Bartramia longicauda

      Western, Calidris mauri

      White-rumped, Calidris fuscicollis

      Wood, Tringa glareola

      SAND-PLOVER, Greater, Charadrius leschenaultii

      Lesser, Charadrius mongolus

      SAPSUCKER, Red-breasted, Sphyrapicus ruber

      Red-naped, Sphyrapicus nuchalis

      Williamson's, Sphyrapicus thyroideus

      Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius

      SCAUP, Greater, Aythya marila

      Lesser, Aythya affinis

      SCOPS-OWL, Oriental, Otus sunia

      SCOTER, Black, Melanitta americana

      Surf, Melanitta perspicillata

      White-winged, Melanitta fusca

      SCREECH-OWL, Eastern, Megascops asio

      Puerto Rican, Megascops nudipes

      Western, Megascops kennicottii

      Whiskered, Megascops trichopsis

      SCRUB-JAY, Florida, Aphelocoma coerulescens

      Island, Aphelocoma insularis

      Western, Aphelocoma californica

      SEA-EAGLE, Steller's, Haliaeetus pelagicus

      SEEDEATER, White-collared, Sporophila torqueola

      SHEARWATER, Audubon's, Puffinus lherminieri

      Black-vented, Puffinus opisthomelas

      Buller's, Puffinus bulleri

      Cape Verde, Calonectris edwardsii

      Christmas, Puffinus nativitatis

      Cory's, Calonectris diomedea

      Flesh-footed, Puffinus carneipes

      Great, Puffinus gravis

      Little, Puffinus assimilis

      Manx, Puffinus puffinus

      Pink-footed, Puffinus creatopus

      Short-tailed, Puffinus tenuirostris

      Sooty, Puffinus griseus

      Streaked, Calonectris leucomelas

      Townsend's, Puffinus auricularis

      Wedge-tailed, Puffinus pacificus

      SHOVELER, Northern, Anas clypeata

      SHRIKE, Brown, Lanius cristatus

      Loggerhead, Lanius ludovicianus

      Northern, Lanius excubitor

      SILKY-FLYCATCHER, Gray, Ptilogonys cinereus

      SISKIN, Eurasian, Spinus spinus

      Pine, Spinus pinus

      SKIMMER, Black, Rynchops niger

      SKUA, Great, Stercorarius skua

      South Polar, Stercorarius maccormicki

      SMEW, Mergellus albellus

      SNIPE, Common, Gallinago gallinago

      Jack, Lymnocryptes minimus

      Pin-tailed, Gallinago stenura

      Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala

      Wilson's, Gallinago delicata

      SOLITAIRE, Townsend's, Myadestes townsendi

      SORA, Porzana carolina

      SPARROW, American Tree, Spizella arborea

      Bachman's, Peucaea aestivalis

      Baird's, Ammodramus bairdii

      Black-chinned, Spizella atrogularis

      Black-throated, Amphispiza bilineata

      Botteri's, Peucaea botterii

      Brewer's, Spizella breweri

      Cassin's, Peucaea cassinii

      Chipping, Spizella passerina

      Clay-colored, Spizella pallida

      Field, Spizella pusilla

      Five-striped, Amphispiza quinquestriata

      Fox, Passerella iliaca

      Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia atricapilla

      Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum

      Harris's, Zonotrichia querula

      Henslow's, Ammodramus henslowii

      Lark, Chondestes grammacus

      Le Conte's, Ammodramus leconteii

      Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii

      Nelson's, Ammodramus nelsoni

      Olive, Arremonops rufivirgatus

      Rufous-crowned, Aimophila ruficeps

      Rufous-winged, Peucaea carpalis

      Sage, Amphispiza belli

      Saltmarsh, Ammodramus caudacutus

      Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis

      Seaside, Ammodramus maritimus

      Song, Melospiza melodia

      Swamp, Melospiza georgiana

      Vesper, Pooecetes gramineus

      White-crowned, Zonotrichia leucophrys

      White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis

      Worthen's, Spizella wortheni

      SPARROWHAWK, Japanese, Accipiter gularis

      SPINDALIS, Puerto Rican, Spindalis portoricensis

      Page 65855

      Western, Spindalis zena

      SPOONBILL, Roseate, Platalea ajaja

      STARLING, Chestnut-cheeked, Sturnus philippensis

      White-cheeked, Sturnus cineraceus

      STARTHROAT, Plain-capped, Heliomaster constantii

      STILT, Black-necked, Himantopus mexicanus

      Black-winged, Himantopus himantopus

      STINT, Little, Calidris minuta

      Long-toed, Calidris subminuta

      Red-necked, Calidris ruficollis

      Temminck's, Calidris temminckii

      STONECHAT, Saxicola torquatus

      STORK, Wood, Mycteria americana

      STORM-PETREL, Ashy, Oceanodroma homochroa

      Band-rumped, Oceanodroma castro

      Black, Oceanodroma melania

      Black-bellied, Fregetta tropica

      Fork-tailed, Oceanodroma furcata

      Leach's, Oceanodroma leucorhoa

      Least, Oceanodroma microsoma

      Matsudaira's, Oceanodroma matsudairae

      Polynesian, Nesofregetta fuliginosa

      Ringed, Oceanodroma hornbyi

      Swinhoe's, Oceanodroma monorhis

      Tristram's, Oceanodroma tristrami

      Wedge-rumped, Oceanodroma tethys

      White-faced, Pelagodroma marina

      White-bellied, Fregetta grallaria

      Wilson's, Oceanites oceanicus

      SURFBIRD, Aphriza virgata

      SWALLOW, Bahama, Tachycineta cyaneoviridis

      Bank, Riparia riparia

      Barn, Hirundo rustica

      Cave, Petrochelidon fulva

      Cliff, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

      Mangrove, Tachycineta albilinea

      Northern Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis

      Tree, Tachycineta bicolor

      Violet-green, Tachycineta thalassina

      SWAMPHEN, Purple, Porphyrio porphyrio

      SWAN, Trumpeter, Cygnus buccinator

      Tundra, Cygnus columbianus

      Whooper, Cygnus cygnus

      SWIFT, Alpine, Apus melba

      Black, Cypseloides niger

      Chimney, Chaetura pelagica

      Common, Apus apus

      Fork-tailed, Apus pacificus

      Short-tailed, Chaetura brachyura

      Vaux's, Chaetura vauxi

      White-collared, Streptoprocne zonaris

      White-throated, Aeronautes saxatalis

      SWIFTLET, Mariana, Aerodramus bartschi

      White-rumped, Aerodramus spodiopygius

      TANAGER, Flame-colored, Piranga bidentata

      Hepatic, Piranga flava

      Puerto Rican, Nesospingus speculiferus

      Scarlet, Piranga olivacea

      Summer, Piranga rubra

      Western, Piranga ludoviciana

      TATTLER, Gray-tailed, Tringa brevipes

      Wandering, Tringa incana

      TEAL, Baikal, Anas formosa

      Blue-winged, Anas discors

      Cinnamon, Anas cyanoptera

      Green-winged, Anas crecca

      TERN, Aleutian, Onychoprion aleuticus

      Arctic, Sterna paradisaea

      Black, Chlidonias niger

      Black-naped, Sterna sumatrana

      Bridled, Onychoprion anaethetus

      Caspian, Hydroprogne caspia

      Common, Sterna hirundo

      Elegant, Thalasseus elegans

      Forster's, Sterna forsteri

      Gray-backed, Onychoprion lunatus

      Great Crested, Thalasseus bergii

      Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica

      Large-billed, Phaetusa simplex

      Least, Sternula antillarum

      Little, Sternula albifrons

      Roseate, Sterna dougallii

      Royal, Thalesseus maximus

      Sandwich, Thalesseus sandvicensis

      Sooty, Onychoprion fuscatus

      Whiskered, Chlidonias hybrida

      White, Gygis alba

      White-winged, Chlidonias leucopterus

      THRASHER, Bendire's, Toxostoma bendirei

      Brown, Toxostoma rufum

      California, Toxostoma redivivum

      Crissal, Toxostoma crissale

      Curve-billed, Toxostoma curvirostre

      Le Conte's, Toxostoma lecontei

      Long-billed, Toxostoma longirostre

      Pearly-eyed, Margarops fuscatus

      Sage, Oreoscoptes montanus

      THRUSH, Aztec, Ridgwayia pinicola

      Bicknell's, Catharus bicknelli

      Clay-colored, Turdus grayi

      Dusky, Turdus naumanni

      Eyebrowed, Turdus obscurus

      Gray-cheeked, Catharus minimus

      Hermit, Catharus guttatus

      Red-legged, Turdus plumbeus

      Swainson's, Catharus ustulatus

      Varied, Ixoreus naevius

      White-throated, Turdus assimilis

      Wood, Hylocichla mustelina

      TITMOUSE, Black-crested, Baeolophus atricristatus

      Bridled, Baeolophus wollweberi

      Juniper, Baeolophus ridgwayi

      Oak, Baeolophus inornatus

      Tufted, Baeolophus bicolor

      TITYRA, Masked, Tityra semifasciata

      TOWHEE, Abert's, Melozone aberti

      California, Melozone crissalis

      Canyon, Melozone fusca

      Eastern, Pipilo erythrophthalmus

      Green-tailed, Pipilo chlorurus

      Spotted, Pipilo maculatus

      TROGON, Elegant, Trogon elegans

      TROPICBIRD, Red-billed, Phaethon aethereus

      Red-tailed, Phaethon rubricauda

      White-tailed, Phaethon lepturus

      TURNSTONE, Black, Arenaria melanocephala

      Ruddy, Arenaria interpres

      TURTLE-DOVE, Oriental, Streptopelia orientalis

      VEERY, Catharus fuscescens

      VERDIN, Auriparus flaviceps

      VIOLETEAR, Green, Colibri thalassinus

      VIREO, Bell's, Vireo bellii

      Black-capped, Vireo atricapilla

      Black-whiskered, Vireo altiloquus

      Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius

      Cassin's, Vireo cassinii

      Gray, Vireo vicinior

      Hutton's, Vireo huttoni

      Philadelphia, Vireo philadelphicus

      Plumbeous, Vireo plumbeus

      Puerto Rican, Vireo latimeri

      Red-eyed, Vireo olivaceus

      Thick-billed, Vireo crassirostris

      Warbling, Vireo gilvus

      White-eyed, Vireo griseus

      Yellow-green, Vireo flavoviridis

      Yellow-throated, Vireo flavifrons

      Yucatan, Vireo magister

      VULTURE, Black, Coragyps atratus

      Turkey, Cathartes aura

      WAGTAIL, Citrine, Motacilla citreola

      Eastern Yellow, Motacilla tschutschensis

      Gray, Motacilla cinerea

      White, Motacilla alba

      WARBLER, Adelaide's, Dendroica adelaidae

      Arctic, Phylloscopus borealis

      Bachman's, Vermivora bachmanii

      Bay-breasted, Dendroica castanea

      Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia

      Black-throated Blue, Dendroica caerulescens

      Black-throated Gray, Dendroica nigrescens

      Black-throated Green, Dendroica virens

      Blackburnian, Dendroica fusca

      Blackpoll, Dendroica striata

      Blue-winged, Vermivora cyanoptera

      Canada, Wilsonia canadensis

      Cape May, Dendroica tigrina

      Cerulean, Dendroica cerulea

      Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pensylvanica

      Colima, Oreothlypis crissalis

      Connecticut, Oporornis agilis

      Crescent-chested, Oreothlypis superciliosa

      Dusky, Phylloscopus fuscatus

      Elfin-woods, Dendroica angelae

      Fan-tailed, Euthlypis lachrymosa

      Golden-cheeked, Dendroica chrysoparia

      Golden-crowned, Basileuterus culicivorus

      Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera

      Page 65856

      Grace's, Dendroica graciae

      Hermit, Dendroica occidentalis

      Hooded, Wilsonia citrina

      Kentucky, Oporornis formosus

      Kirtland's, Dendroica kirtlandii

      Lanceolated, Locustella lanceolata

      Lucy's, Oreothlypis luciae

      MacGillivray's, Oporornis tolmiei

      Magnolia, Dendroica magnolia

      Mourning, Oporornis philadelphia

      Nashville, Oreothlypis ruficapilla

      Olive, Peucedramus taeniatus

      Orange-crowned, Oreothlypis celata

      Palm, Dendroica palmarum

      Pine, Dendroica pinus

      Prairie, Dendroica discolor

      Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea

      Red-faced, Cardellina rubrifrons

      Rufous-capped, Basileuterus rufifrons

      Sedge, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

      Swainson's, Limnothlypis swainsonii

      Tennessee, Oreothlypis peregrina

      Townsend's, Dendroica townsendi

      Virginia's, Oreothlypis virginiae

      Willow, Phylloscopus trochilus

      Wilson's, Wilsonia pusilla

      Wood, Phylloscopus sibilatrix

      Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorum

      Yellow, Dendroica petechia

      Yellow-browed, Phylloscopus inornatus

      Yellow-rumped, Dendroica coronata

      Yellow-throated, Dendroica dominica

      WATERTHRUSH, Louisiana, Parkesia motacilla

      Northern, Parkesia noveboracensis

      WAXWING, Bohemian, Bombycilla garrulus

      Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum

      WHEATEAR, Northern, Oenanthe oenanthe

      WHIMBREL, Numenius phaeopus

      WHIP-POOR-WILL, Eastern, Caprimulgus vociferus

      Mexican, Caprimulgus arizonae

      WHISTLING-DUCK, Black-bellied, Dendrocygna autumnalis

      Fulvous, Dendrocygna bicolor

      West Indian, Dendrocygna arborea

      WHITETHROAT, Lesser, Sylvia curruca

      WIGEON, American, Anas americana

      Eurasian, Anas penelope

      WILLET, Tringa semipalmata

      WOOD-PEWEE, Eastern, Contopus virens

      Western, Contopus sordidulus

      WOODCOCK, American, Scolopax minor

      Eurasian, Scolopax rusticola

      WOODPECKER, Acorn, Melanerpes formicivorus

      American Three-toed, Picoides dorsalis

      Arizona, Picoides arizonae

      Black-backed, Picoides arcticus

      Downy, Picoides pubescens

      Gila, Melanerpes uropygialis

      Golden-fronted, Melanerpes aurifrons

      Great Spotted, Dendrocopos major

      Hairy, Picoides villosus

      Ivory-billed, Campephilus principalis

      Ladder-backed, Picoides scalaris

      Lewis's, Melanerpes lewis

      Nuttall's, Picoides nuttallii

      Pileated, Dryocopus pileatus

      Puerto Rican, Melanerpes portoricensis

      Red-bellied, Melanerpes carolinus

      Red-cockaded, Picoides borealis

      Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus

      White-headed, Picoides albolarvatus

      WOODSTAR, Bahama, Calliphlox evelynae

      WREN, Bewick's Thryomanes bewickii

      Cactus, Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

      Canyon, Catherpes mexicanus

      Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus

      House, Troglodytes aedon

      Marsh, Cistothorus palustris

      Pacific, Troglodytes pacificus

      Rock, Salpinctes obsoletus

      Sedge, Cistothorus platensis

      Sinaloa, Thryothorus sinaloa

      Winter, Troglodytes hiemalis

      WRENTIT, Chamaea fasciata

      WRYNECK, Eurasian, Jynx torquilla

      YELLOWLEGS, Greater, Tringa melanoleuca

      Lesser, Tringa flavipes

      YELLOWTHROAT, Common, Geothlypis trichas

      Gray-crowned, Geothlypis poliocephala

      (2) Taxonomic listing. Species are listed in phylogenetic sequence by scientific name, with the common (English) name following the scientific name. To help clarify species relationships, we also list the higher-level taxonomic categories of Order, Family, and Subfamily.


      Family ANATIDAE

      Subfamily DENDROCYGNINAE

      Dendrocygna autumnalis, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck

      Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck

      Dendrocygna bicolor, Fulvous Whistling-Duck

      Subfamily ANSERINAE

      Anser fabalis, Taiga Bean-Goose

      Anser serrirostris, Tundra Bean-Goose

      Anser albifrons, Greater White-fronted Goose

      Anser erythropus, Lesser White-fronted Goose

      Chen canagica, Emperor Goose

      Chen caerulescens, Snow Goose

      Chen rossii, Ross's Goose

      Branta bernicla, Brant

      Branta leucopsis, Barnacle Goose

      Branta canadensis, Canada Goose (including Branta hutchinsii, Cackling Goose)

      Branta sandvicensis, Hawaiian Goose

      Cygnus buccinator, Trumpeter Swan

      Cygnus columbianus, Tundra Swan

      Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan

      Subfamily ANATINAE

      Cairina moschata, Muscovy Duck

      Aix sponsa, Wood Duck

      Anas strepera, Gadwall

      Anas falcata, Falcated Duck

      Anas penelope, Eurasian Wigeon

      Anas americana, American Wigeon

      Anas rubripes, American Black Duck

      Anas platyrhynchos, Mallard

      Anas fulvigula, Mottled Duck

      Anas wyvilliana, Hawaiian Duck

      Anas laysanensis, Laysan Duck

      Anas zonorhyncha, Eastern Spot-billed Duck

      Anas superciliosa, Pacific Black Duck

      Anas discors, Blue-winged Teal

      Anas cyanoptera, Cinnamon Teal

      Anas clypeata, Northern Shoveler

      Anas bahamensis, White-cheeked Pintail

      Anas acuta, Northern Pintail

      Anas querquedula, Garganey

      Anas formosa, Baikal Teal

      Anas crecca, Green-winged Teal

      Aythya valisineria, Canvasback

      Aythya americana, Redhead

      Aythya ferina, Common Pochard

      Aythya baeri, Baer's Pochard

      Aythya collaris, Ring-necked Duck

      Aythya fuligula, Tufted Duck

      Aythya marila, Greater Scaup

      Aythya affinis, Lesser Scaup

      Polysticta stelleri, Steller's Eider

      Somateria fischeri, Spectacled Eider

      Somateria spectabilis, King Eider

      Somateria mollissima, Common Eider

      Histrionicus histrionicus, Harlequin Duck

      Melanitta perspicillata, Surf Scoter

      Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter

      Melanitta americana, Black Scoter

      Clangula hyemalis, Long-tailed Duck

      Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead

      Bucephala clangula, Common Goldeneye

      Bucephala islandica, Barrow's Goldeneye

      Mergellus albellus, Smew

      Lophodytes cucullatus, Hooded Merganser

      Mergus merganser, Common Merganser

      Mergus serrator, Red-breasted Merganser

      Nomonyx dominicus, Masked Duck

      Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck


      Family GAVIIDAE

      Gavia stellata, Red-throated Loon

      Gavia arctica, Arctic Loon

      Gavia pacifica, Pacific Loon

      Gavia immer, Common Loon

      Gavia adamsii, Yellow-billed Loon



      Page 65857

      Tachybaptus dominicus, Least Grebe

      Podilymbus podiceps, Pied-billed Grebe

      Podiceps auritus, Horned Grebe

      Podiceps grisegena, Red-necked Grebe

      Podiceps nigricollis, Eared Grebe

      Aechmophorus occidentalis, Western Grebe

      Aechmophorus clarkii, Clark's Grebe



      Phoenicopterus ruber, American Flamingo


      Family DIOMEDEIDAE

      Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Yellow-nosed Albatross

      Thalassarche cauta, Shy Albatross

      Thalassarche melanophris, Black-browed Albatross

      Phoebetria palpebrata, Light-mantled Albatross

      Diomedea exulans, Wandering Albatross

      Phoebastria immutabilis, Laysan Albatross

      Phoebastria nigripes, Black-footed Albatross

      Phoebastria albatrus, Short-tailed Albatross


      Fulmarus glacialis, Northern Fulmar

      Pterodroma macroptera, Great-winged Petrel

      Pterodroma neglecta, Kermadec Petrel

      Pterodroma arminjoniana, Herald Petrel

      Pterodroma ultima, Murphy's Petrel

      Pterodroma inexpectata, Mottled Petrel

      Pterodroma cahow, Bermuda Petrel

      Pterodroma hasitata, Black-capped Petrel

      Pterodroma externa, Juan Fernandez Petrel

      Pterodroma sandwichensis, Hawaiian Petrel

      Pterodroma cervicalis, White-necked Petrel

      Pterodroma hypoleuca, Bonin Petrel

      Pterodroma nigripennis, Black-winged Petrel

      Pterodroma cookii, Cook's Petrel

      Pterodroma longirostris, Stejneger's Petrel

      Pterodroma alba, Phoenix Petrel

      Pterodroma leucoptera, Gould's Petrel

      Pterodroma rostrata, Tahiti Petrel

      Bulweria bulwerii, Bulwer's Petrel

      Bulweria fallax, Jouanin's Petrel

      Procellaria parkinsoni, Parkinson's Petrel

      Calonectris leucomelas, Streaked Shearwater

      Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater

      Calonectris edwardsii, Cape Verde Shearwater

      Puffinus creatopus, Pink-footed Shearwater

      Puffinus carneipes, Flesh-footed Shearwater

      Puffinus gravis, Great Shearwater

      Puffinus pacificus, Wedge-tailed Shearwater

      Puffinus bulleri, Buller's Shearwater

      Puffinus griseus, Sooty Shearwater

      Puffinus tenuirostris, Short-tailed Shearwater

      Puffinus nativitatis, Christmas Shearwater

      Puffinus puffinus, Manx Shearwater

      Puffinus auricularis, Townsend's Shearwater

      Puffinus opisthomelas, Black-vented Shearwater

      Puffinus lherminieri, Audubon's Shearwater

      Puffinus assimilis, Little Shearwater


      Oceanites oceanicus, Wilson's Storm-Petrel

      Pelagodroma marina, White-faced Storm-Petrel

      Fregetta tropica, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel

      Fregetta grallaria, White-bellied Storm-Petrel

      Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Polynesian Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma furcata, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma hornbyi, Ringed Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma monorhis, Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Leach's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma homochroa, Ashy Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma castro, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma tethys, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma matsudairae, Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma melania, Black Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma tristrami, Tristram's Storm-Petrel

      Oceanodroma microsoma, Least Storm-Petrel



      Phaethon lepturus, White-tailed Tropicbird

      Phaethon aethereus, Red-billed Tropicbird

      Phaethon rubricauda, Red-tailed Tropicbird


      Family CICONIIDAE

      Jabiru mycteria, Jabiru

      Mycteria americana, Wood Stork

      Order SULIFORMES

      Family FREGATIDAE

      Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird

      Fregata minor, Great Frigatebird

      Fregata ariel, Lesser Frigatebird

      Family SULIDAE

      Sula dactylatra, Masked Booby

      Sula nebouxii, Blue-footed Booby

      Sula leucogaster, Brown Booby

      Sula sula, Red-footed Booby

      Morus bassanus, Northern Gannet


      Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Brandt's Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Neotropic Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax auritus, Double-crested Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax carbo, Great Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax urile, Red-faced Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Pelagic Cormorant

      Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, Little Pied Cormorant

      Family ANHINGIDAE

      Anhinga anhinga, Anhinga


      Family PELECANIDAE

      Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, American White Pelican

      Pelecanus occidentalis, Brown Pelican

      Family ARDEIDAE

      Botaurus lentiginosus, American Bittern

      Ixobrychus sinensis, Yellow Bittern

      Ixobrychus exilis, Least Bittern

      Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Schrenck's Bittern

      Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern

      Ardea herodias, Great Blue Heron

      Ardea cinerea, Gray Heron

      Ardea alba, Great Egret

      Mesophoyx intermedia, Intermediate Egret

      Egretta eulophotes, Chinese Egret

      Egretta garzetta, Little Egret

      Egretta sacra, Pacific Reef-Egret

      Egretta gularis, Western Reef-Heron

      Egretta thula, Snowy Egret

      Egretta caerulea, Little Blue Heron

      Egretta tricolor, Tricolored Heron

      Egretta rufescens, Reddish Egret

      Bubulcus ibis, Cattle Egret

      Ardeola bacchus, Chinese Pond-Heron

      Butorides virescens, Green Heron

      Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron

      Nyctanassa violacea, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

      Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night-Heron

      Gorsachius melanolophus, Malayan Night-Heron



      Eudocimus albus, White Ibis

      Eudocimus ruber, Scarlet Ibis

      Plegadis falcinellus, Glossy Ibis

      Plegadis chihi, White-faced Ibis

      Page 65858

      Subfamily PLATALEINAE

      Platalea ajaja, Roseate Spoonbill


      Family CATHARTIDAE

      Coragyps atratus, Black Vulture

      Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture

      Gymnogyps californianus, California Condor

      Family PANDIONIDAE

      Pandion haliaetus, Osprey


      Chondrohierax uncinatus, Hook-billed Kite

      Elanoides forficatus, Swallow-tailed Kite

      Elanus leucurus, White-tailed Kite

      Rostrhamus sociabilis, Snail Kite

      Ictinia mississippiensis, Mississippi Kite

      Milvus migrans, Black Kite

      Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Bald Eagle

      Haliaeetus albicilla, White-tailed Eagle

      Haliaeetus pelagicus, Steller's Sea-Eagle

      Circus cyaneus, Northern Harrier

      Accipiter soloensis, Gray Frog-Hawk

      Accipiter gularis, Japanese Sparrowhawk

      Accipiter striatus, Sharp-shinned Hawk

      Accipiter cooperii, Cooper's Hawk

      Accipiter gentilis, Northern Goshawk

      Geranospiza caerulescens, Crane Hawk

      Buteogallus anthracinus, Common Black-Hawk

      Parabuteo unicinctus, Harris's Hawk

      Buteo magnirostris, Roadside Hawk

      Buteo lineatus, Red-shouldered Hawk

      Buteo platypterus, Broad-winged Hawk

      Buteo nitidus, Gray Hawk

      Buteo brachyurus, Short-tailed Hawk

      Buteo swainsoni, Swainson's Hawk

      Buteo albicaudatus, White-tailed Hawk

      Buteo albonotatus, Zone-tailed Hawk

      Buteo solitarius, Hawaiian Hawk

      Buteo jamaicensis, Red-tailed Hawk

      Buteo regalis, Ferruginous Hawk

      Buteo lagopus, Rough-legged Hawk

      Aquila chrysaetos, Golden Eagle


      Family FALCONIDAE

      Subfamily MICRASTURINAE

      Micrastur semitorquatus, Collared Forest-Falcon

      Subfamily CARACARINAE

      Caracara cheriway, Crested Caracara

      Subfamily FALCONINAE

      Falco tinnunculus, Eurasian Kestrel

      Falco sparverius, American Kestrel

      Falco vespertinus, Red-footed Falcon

      Falco columbarius, Merlin

      Falco subbuteo, Eurasian Hobby

      Falco femoralis, Aplomado Falcon

      Falco rusticolus, Gyrfalcon

      Falco peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon

      Falco mexicanus, Prairie Falcon

      Order GRUIFORMES

      Family RALLIDAE

      Coturnicops noveboracensis, Yellow Rail

      Laterallus jamaicensis, Black Rail

      Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail

      Gallirallus owstoni, Guam Rail

      Crex crex, Corn Crake

      Rallus longirostris, Clapper Rail

      Rallus elegans, King Rail

      Rallus limicola, Virginia Rail

      Porzana carolina, Sora

      Porzana tabuensis, Spotless Crake

      Porzana flaviventer, Yellow-breasted Crake

      Neocrex erythrops, Paint-billed Crake

      Pardirallus maculatus, Spotted Rail

      Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Swamphen

      Porphyrio martinica, Purple Gallinule

      Porphyrio flavirostris, Azure Gallinule

      Gallinula chloropus, Common Moorhen

      Fulica atra, Eurasian Coot

      Fulica alai, Hawaiian Coot

      Fulica americana, American Coot

      Fulica caribaea, Caribbean Coot

      Family ARAMIDAE

      Aramus guarauna, Limpkin

      Family GRUIDAE

      Grus canadensis, Sandhill Crane

      Grus grus, Common Crane

      Grus americana, Whooping Crane



      Subfamily VANELLINAE

      Vanellus vanellus, Northern Lapwing

      Subfamily CHARADRIINAE

      Pluvialis squatarola, Black-bellied Plover

      Pluvialis apricaria, European Golden-Plover

      Pluvialis dominica, American Golden-Plover

      Pluvialis fulva, Pacific Golden-Plover

      Charadrius mongolus, Lesser Sand-Plover

      Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand-Plover

      Charadrius collaris, Collared Plover

      Charadrius alexandrinus, Snowy Plover

      Charadrius wilsonia, Wilson's Plover

      Charadrius hiaticula, Common Ringed Plover

      Charadrius semipalmatus, Semipalmated Plover

      Charadrius melodus, Piping Plover

      Charadrius dubius, Little Ringed Plover

      Charadrius vociferus, Killdeer

      Charadrius montanus, Mountain Plover

      Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Dotterel


      Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian Oystercatcher

      Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher

      Haematopus bachmani, Black Oystercatcher


      Himantopus himantopus, Black-winged Stilt

      Himantopus mexicanus, Black-necked Stilt

      Recurvirostra americana, American Avocet

      Family JACANIDAE

      Jacana spinosa, Northern Jacana


      Subfamily SCOLOPACINAE

      Xenus cinereus, Terek Sandpiper

      Actitis hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper

      Actitis macularius, Spotted Sandpiper

      Tringa ochropus, Green Sandpiper

      Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper

      Tringa brevipes, Gray-tailed Tattler

      Tringa incana, Wandering Tattler

      Tringa erythropus, Spotted Redshank

      Tringa melanoleuca, Greater Yellowlegs

      Tringa nebularia, Common Greenshank

      Tringa guttifer, Nordmann's Greenshank

      Tringa semipalmata, Willet

      Tringa flavipes, Lesser Yellowlegs

      Tringa stagnatilis, Marsh Sandpiper

      Tringa glareola, Wood Sandpiper

      Bartramia longicauda, Upland Sandpiper

      Numenius minutus, Little Curlew

      Numenius borealis, Eskimo Curlew

      Numenius phaeopus, Whimbrel

      Numenius tahitiensis, Bristle-thighed Curlew

      Numenius madagascariensis, Far Eastern Curlew

      Numenius arquata, Eurasian Curlew

      Numenius americanus, Long-billed Curlew

      Limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit

      Limosa haemastica, Hudsonian Godwit

      Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit

      Limosa fedoa, Marbled Godwit

      Arenaria interpres, Ruddy Turnstone

      Arenaria melanocephala, Black Turnstone

      Aphriza virgata, Surfbird

      Calidris tenuirostris, Great Knot

      Calidris canutus, Red Knot

      Calidris alba, Sanderling

      Calidris pusilla, Semipalmated Sandpiper

      Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper

      Calidris ruficollis, Red-necked Stint

      Calidris minuta, Little Stint

      Calidris temminckii, Temminck's Stint

      Calidris subminuta, Long-toed Stint

      Calidris minutilla, Least Sandpiper

      Calidris fuscicollis, White-rumped

      Page 65859


      Calidris bairdii, Baird's Sandpiper

      Calidris melanotos, Pectoral Sandpiper

      Calidris acuminata, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper

      Calidris maritima, Purple Sandpiper

      Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper

      Calidris alpina, Dunlin

      Calidris ferruginea, Curlew Sandpiper

      Calidris himantopus, Stilt Sandpiper

      Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Spoon-billed Sandpiper

      Limicola falcinellus, Broad-billed Sandpiper

      Tryngites subruficollis, Buff-breasted Sandpiper

      Philomachus pugnax, Ruff

      Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher

      Limnodromus scolopaceus, Long-billed Dowitcher

      Lymnocryptes minimus, Jack Snipe

      Gallinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe

      Gallinago gallinago, Common Snipe

      Gallinago stenura, Pin-tailed Snipe

      Gallinago megala, Swinhoe's Snipe

      Scolopax rusticola, Eurasian Woodcock

      Scolopax minor, American Woodcock

      Subfamily PHALAROPODINAE

      Phalaropus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope

      Phalaropus lobatus, Red-necked Phalarope

      Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope

      Family LARIDAE

      Subfamily LARINAE

      Creagrus furcatus, Swallow-tailed Gull

      Rissa tridactyla, Black-legged Kittiwake

      Rissa brevirostris, Red-legged Kittiwake

      Pagophila eburnea, Ivory Gull

      Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull

      Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull

      Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Gray-hooded Gull

      Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Black-headed Gull

      Hydrocoloeus minutus, Little Gull

      Rhodostethia rosea, Ross's Gull

      Leucophaeus atricilla, Laughing Gull

      Leucophaeus pipixcan, Franklin's Gull

      Larus belcheri, Belcher's Gull

      Larus crassirostris, Black-tailed Gull

      Larus heermanni, Heermann's Gull

      Larus canus, Mew Gull

      Larus delawarensis, Ring-billed Gull

      Larus occidentalis, Western Gull

      Larus livens, Yellow-footed Gull

      Larus californicus, California Gull

      Larus argentatus, Herring Gull

      Larus michahellis, Yellow-legged Gull

      Larus thayeri, Thayer's Gull

      Larus glaucoides, Iceland Gull

      Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull

      Larus schistisagus, Slaty-backed Gull

      Larus glaucescens, Glaucous-winged Gull

      Larus hyperboreus, Glaucous Gull

      Larus marinus, Great Black-backed Gull

      Larus dominicanus, Kelp Gull

      Subfamily STERNINAE

      Anous stolidus, Brown Noddy

      Anous minutus, Black Noddy

      Procelsterna cerulea, Blue-gray Noddy

      Gygis alba, White Tern

      Onychoprion fuscatus, Sooty Tern

      Onychoprion lunatus, Gray-backed Tern

      Onychoprion anaethetus, Bridled Tern

      Onychoprion aleuticus, Aleutian Tern

      Sternula albifrons, Little Tern

      Sternula antillarum, Least Tern

      Phaetusa simplex, Large-billed Tern

      Gelochelidon nilotica, Gull-billed Tern

      Hydroprogne caspia, Caspian Tern

      Chlidonias niger, Black Tern

      Chlidonias leucopterus, White-winged Tern

      Chlidonias hybridus, Whiskered Tern

      Sterna dougallii, Roseate Tern

      Sterna sumatrana, Black-naped Tern

      Sterna hirundo, Common Tern

      Sterna paradisaea, Arctic Tern

      Sterna forsteri, Forster's Tern

      Thalasseus maximus, Royal Tern

      Thalasseus bergii, Great Crested Tern

      Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern

      Thalasseus elegans, Elegant Tern

      Subfamily RYNCHOPINAE

      Rynchops niger, Black Skimmer


      Stercorarius skua, Great Skua

      Stercorarius maccormicki, South Polar Skua

      Stercorarius pomarinus, Pomarine Jaeger

      Stercorarius parasiticus, Parasitic Jaeger

      Stercorarius longicaudus, Long-tailed Jaeger

      Family ALCIDAE

      Alle alle, Dovekie

      Uria aalge, Common Murre

      Uria lomvia, Thick-billed Murre

      Alca torda, Razorbill

      Cepphus grylle, Black Guillemot

      Cepphus columba, Pigeon Guillemot

      Brachyramphus perdix, Long-billed Murrelet

      Brachyramphus marmoratus, Marbled Murrelet

      Brachyramphus brevirostris, Kittlitz's Murrelet

      Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Xantus's Murrelet

      Synthliboramphus craveri, Craveri's Murrelet

      Synthliboramphus antiquus, Ancient Murrelet

      Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cassin's Auklet

      Aethia psittacula, Parakeet Auklet

      Aethia pusilla, Least Auklet

      Aethia pygmaea, Whiskered Auklet

      Aethia cristatella, Crested Auklet

      Cerorhinca monocerata, Rhinoceros Auklet

      Fratercula arctica, Atlantic Puffin

      Fratercula corniculata, Horned Puffin

      Fratercula cirrhata, Tufted Puffin


      Family COLUMBIDAE

      Patagioenas squamosa, Scaly-naped Pigeon

      Patagioenas leucocephala, White-crowned Pigeon

      Patagioenas flavirostris, Red-billed Pigeon

      Patagioenas inornata, Plain Pigeon

      Patagioenas fasciata, Band-tailed Pigeon

      Streptopelia orientalis, Oriental Turtle-Dove

      Zenaida asiatica, White-winged Dove

      Zenaida aurita, Zenaida Dove

      Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove

      Columbina inca, Inca Dove

      Columbina passerina, Common Ground-Dove

      Columbina talpacoti, Ruddy Ground-Dove

      Leptotila verreauxi, White-tipped Dove

      Geotrygon chrysia, Key West Quail-Dove

      Geotrygon mystacea, Bridled Quail-Dove

      Geotrygon montana, Ruddy Quail-Dove

      Gallicolumba xanthonura, White-throated Ground-Dove

      Gallicolumba stairi, Friendly Ground-Dove

      Ptilinopus perousii, Many-colored Fruit-Dove

      Ptilinopus porphyraceus, Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove

      Ptilinopus roseicapilla, Mariana Fruit-Dove

      Ducula pacifica, Pacific Imperial-Pigeon


      Family CUCULIDAE

      Subfamily CUCULINAE

      Cuculus fugax, Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo

      Cuculus canorus, Common Cuckoo

      Cuculus optatus, Oriental Cuckoo

      Coccyzus americanus, Yellow-billed Cuckoo

      Coccyzus minor, Mangrove Cuckoo

      Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Black-billed Cuckoo

      Coccyzus vieilloti, Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo

      Page 65860

      Subfamily NEOMORPHINAE

      Geococcyx californianus, Greater Roadrunner

      Subfamily CROTOPHAGINAE

      Crotophaga ani, Smooth-billed Ani

      Crotophaga sulcirostris, Groove-billed Ani


      Family TYTONIDAE

      Tyto alba, Barn Owl

      Family STRIGIDAE

      Otus flammeolus, Flammulated Owl

      Otus sunia, Oriental Scops-Owl

      Megascops kennicottii, Western Screech-Owl

      Megascops asio, Eastern Screech-Owl

      Megascops trichopsis, Whiskered Screech-Owl

      Megascops nudipes, Puerto Rican Screech-Owl

      Bubo virginianus, Great Horned Owl

      Bubo scandiacus, Snowy Owl

      Surnia ulula, Northern Hawk Owl

      Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl

      Glaucidium brasilianum, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl

      Micrathene whitneyi, Elf Owl

      Athene cunicularia, Burrowing Owl

      Ciccaba virgata, Mottled Owl

      Strix occidentalis, Spotted Owl

      Strix varia, Barred Owl

      Strix nebulosa, Great Gray Owl

      Asio otus, Long-eared Owl

      Asio stygius, Stygian Owl

      Asio flammeus, Short-eared Owl

      Aegolius funereus, Boreal Owl

      Aegolius acadicus, Northern Saw-whet Owl

      Ninox scutulata, Brown Hawk-Owl



      Subfamily CHORDEILINAE

      Chordeiles acutipennis, Lesser Nighthawk

      Chordeiles minor, Common Nighthawk

      Chordeiles gundlachii, Antillean Nighthawk

      Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE

      Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Pauraque

      Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Common Poorwill

      Caprimulgus carolinensis, Chuck-will's-widow

      Caprimulgus ridgwayi, Buff-collared Nightjar

      Caprimulgus vociferus, Eastern Whip-poor-will

      Caprimulgus arizonae, Mexican Whip-poor-will

      Caprimulgus noctitherus, Puerto Rican Nightjar

      Caprimulgus indicus, Gray Nightjar


      Family APODIDAE

      Subfamily CYPSELOIDINAE

      Cypseloides niger, Black Swift

      Streptoprocne zonaris, White-collared Swift

      Subfamily CHAETURINAE

      Chaetura pelagica, Chimney Swift

      Chaetura vauxi, Vaux's Swift

      Chaetura brachyura, Short-tailed Swift

      Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Needletail

      Aerodramus spodiopygius, White-rumped Swiftlet

      Aerodramus bartschi, Mariana Swiftlet

      Subfamily APODINAE

      Apus apus, Common Swift

      Apus pacificus, Fork-tailed Swift

      Apus melba, Alpine Swift

      Aeronautes saxatalis, White-throated Swift

      Tachornis phoenicobia, Antillean Palm-Swift

      Family TROCHILIDAE

      Subfamily TROCHILINAE

      Colibri thalassinus, Green Violetear

      Anthracothorax prevostii, Green-breasted Mango

      Anthracothorax dominicus, Antillean Mango

      Anthracothorax viridis, Green Mango

      Eulampis jugularis, Purple-throated Carib

      Eulampis holosericeus, Green-throated Carib

      Orthorhyncus cristatus, Antillean Crested Hummingbird

      Chlorostilbon maugaeus, Puerto Rican Emerald

      Cynanthus latirostris, Broad-billed Hummingbird

      Hylocharis leucotis, White-eared Hummingbird

      Hylocharis xantusii, Xantus's Hummingbird

      Amazilia beryllina, Berylline Hummingbird

      Amazilia yucatanensis, Buff-bellied Hummingbird

      Amazilia rutila, Cinnamon Hummingbird

      Amazilia violiceps, Violet-crowned Hummingbird

      Lampornis clemenciae, Blue-throated Hummingbird

      Eugenes fulgens, Magnificent Hummingbird

      Heliomaster constantii, Plain-capped Starthroat

      Calliphlox evelynae, Bahama Woodstar

      Calothorax lucifer, Lucifer Hummingbird

      Archilochus colubris, Ruby-throated Hummingbird

      Archilochus alexandri, Black-chinned Hummingbird

      Calypte anna, Anna's Hummingbird

      Calypte costae, Costa's Hummingbird

      Stellula calliope, Calliope Hummingbird

      Atthis heloisa, Bumblebee Hummingbird

      Selasphorus platycercus, Broad-tailed Hummingbird

      Selasphorus rufus, Rufous Hummingbird

      Selasphorus sasin, Allen's Hummingbird


      Family TROGONIDAE

      Subfamily TROGONINAE

      Trogon elegans, Elegant Trogon

      Euptilotis neoxenus, Eared Quetzel


      Family UPUPIDAE

      Upupa epops, Eurasian Hoopoe


      Family ALCEDINIDAE

      Subfamily HALCYONINAE

      Todirhamphus cinnamominus, Micronesian Kingfisher

      Todirhamphus chloris, Collared Kingfisher

      Subfamily CERYLINAE

      Megaceryle torquata, Ringed Kingfisher

      Megaceryle alcyon, Belted Kingfisher

      Chloroceryle americana, Green Kingfisher

      Order PICIFORMES

      Family PICIDAE

      Subfamily JYNGINAE

      Jynx torquilla, Eurasian Wryneck

      Subfamily PICINAE

      Melanerpes lewis, Lewis's Woodpecker

      Melanerpes portoricensis, Puerto Rican Woodpecker

      Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Red-headed Woodpecker

      Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker

      Melanerpes uropygialis, Gila Woodpecker

      Melanerpes aurifrons, Golden-fronted Woodpecker

      Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker

      Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Williamson's Sapsucker

      Sphyrapicus varius, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

      Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-naped Sapsucker

      Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker

      Dendrocopos major, Great Spotted Woodpecker

      Picoides scalaris, Ladder-backed Woodpecker

      Picoides nuttallii, Nuttall's Woodpecker

      Picoides pubescens, Downy Woodpecker

      Picoides villosus, Hairy Woodpecker

      Picoides arizonae, Arizona Woodpecker

      Picoides borealis, Red-cockaded Woodpecker

      Page 65861

      Picoides albolarvatus, White-headed Woodpecker

      Picoides dorsalis, American Three-toed Woodpecker

      Picoides arcticus, Black-backed Woodpecker

      Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker

      Colaptes chrysoides, Gilded Flicker

      Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker

      Campephilus principalis, Ivory-billed Woodpecker


      Family TYRANNIDAE

      Subfamily ELAENIINAE

      Camptostoma imberbe, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet

      Myiopagis viridicata, Greenish Elaenia

      Elaenia martinica, Caribbean Elaenia

      Elaenia albiceps, White-crested Eleania

      Subfamily FLUVICOLINAE

      Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Tufted Flycatcher

      Contopus cooperi, Olive-sided Flycatcher

      Contopus pertinax, Greater Pewee

      Contopus sordidulus, Western Wood-Pewee

      Contopus virens, Eastern Wood-Pewee

      Contopus caribaeus, Cuban Pewee

      Contopus hispaniolensis, Hispaniolan Pewee

      Contopus latirostris, Lesser Antillean Pewee

      Empidonax flaviventris, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher

      Empidonax virescens, Acadian Flycatcher

      Empidonax alnorum, Alder Flycatcher

      Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher

      Empidonax minimus, Least Flycatcher

      Empidonax hammondii, Hammond's Flycatcher

      Empidonax wrightii, Gray Flycatcher

      Empidonax oberholseri, Dusky Flycatcher

      Empidonax difficilis, Pacific-slope Flycatcher

      Empidonax occidentalis, Cordilleran Flycatcher

      Empidonax fulvifrons, Buff-breasted Flycatcher

      Sayornis nigricans, Black Phoebe

      Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe

      Sayornis saya, Say's Phoebe

      Pyrocephalus rubinus, Vermilion Flycatcher

      Subfamily TYRANNINAE

      Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher

      Myiarchus cinerascens, Ash-throated Flycatcher

      Myiarchus nuttingi, Nutting's Flycatcher

      Myiarchus crinitus, Great Crested Flycatcher

      Myiarchus tyrannulus, Brown-crested Flycatcher

      Myiarchus sagrae, La Sagra's Flycatcher

      Myiarchus antillarum, Puerto Rican Flycatcher

      Pitangus sulphuratus, Great Kiskadee

      Myiozetetes similis, Social Flycatcher

      Myiodynastes luteiventris, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher

      Legatus leucophalus, Piratic Flycatcher

      Empidonomus varius, Variegated Flycatcher

      Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher

      Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropical Kingbird

      Tyrannus couchii, Couch's Kingbird

      Tyrannus vociferans, Cassin's Kingbird

      Tyrannus crassirostris, Thick-billed Kingbird

      Tyrannus verticalis, Western Kingbird

      Tyrannus tyrannus, Eastern Kingbird

      Tyrannus dominicensis, Gray Kingbird

      Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Loggerhead Kingbird

      Tyrannus forficatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

      Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher

      Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard

      Tityra semifasciata, Masked Tityra

      Family LANIIDAE

      Lanius cristatus, Brown Shrike

      Lanius ludovicianus, Loggerhead Shrike

      Lanius excubitor, Northern Shrike

      Family VIREONIDAE

      Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo

      Vireo crassirostris, Thick-billed Vireo

      Vireo latimeri, Puerto Rican Vireo

      Vireo bellii, Bell's Vireo

      Vireo atricapilla, Black-capped Vireo

      Vireo vicinior, Gray Vireo

      Vireo flavifrons, Yellow-throated Vireo

      Vireo plumbeus, Plumbeous Vireo

      Vireo cassinii, Cassin's Vireo

      Vireo solitarius, Blue-headed Vireo

      Vireo huttoni, Hutton's Vireo

      Vireo gilvus, Warbling Vireo

      Vireo philadelphicus, Philadelphia Vireo

      Vireo olivaceus, Red-eyed Vireo

      Vireo flavoviridis, Yellow-green Vireo

      Vireo altiloquus, Black-whiskered Vireo

      Vireo magister, Yucatan Vireo

      Family CORVIDAE

      Perisoreus canadensis, Gray Jay

      Psilorhinus morio, Brown Jay

      Cyanocorax yncas, Green Jay

      Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Pinyon Jay

      Cyanocitta stelleri, Steller's Jay

      Cyanocitta cristata, Blue Jay

      Aphelocoma coerulescens, Florida Scrub-Jay

      Aphelocoma insularis, Island Scrub-Jay

      Aphelocoma californica, Western Scrub-Jay

      Aphelocoma ultramarina, Mexican Jay

      Nucifraga columbiana, Clark's Nutcracker

      Pica hudsonia, Black-billed Magpie

      Pica nuttalli, Yellow-billed Magpie

      Corvus kubaryi, Mariana Crow

      Corvus brachyrhynchos, American Crow

      Corvus caurinus, Northwestern Crow

      Corvus leucognaphalus, White-necked Crow

      Corvus imparatus, Tamaulipas Crow

      Corvus ossifragus, Fish Crow

      Corvus hawaiiensis, Hawaiian Crow

      Corvus cryptoleucus, Chihuahuan Raven

      Corvus corax, Common Raven

      Family ALAUDIDAE

      Alauda arvensis, Sky Lark

      Eremophila alpestris, Horned Lark


      Subfamily HIRUNDININAE

      Progne subis, Purple Martin

      Progne cryptoleuca, Cuban Martin

      Progne dominicensis, Caribbean Martin

      Progne chalybea, Gray-breasted Martin

      Progne elegans, Southern Martin

      Progne tapera, Brown-chested Martin

      Tachycineta bicolor, Tree Swallow

      Tachycineta albilinea, Mangrove Swallow

      Tachycineta thalassina, Violet-green Swallow

      Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Bahama Swallow

      Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Northern Rough-winged Swallow

      Riparia riparia, Bank Swallow

      Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow

      Petrochelidon fulva, Cave Swallow

      Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow

      Delichon urbicum, Common House-Martin

      Family PARIDAE

      Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee

      Poecile atricapillus, Black-capped Chickadee

      Poecile gambeli, Mountain Chickadee

      Poecile sclateri, Mexican Chickadee

      Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee

      Poecile hudsonicus, Boreal Chickadee

      Poecile cinctus, Gray-headed Chickadee

      Baeolophus wollweberi, Bridled Titmouse

      Page 65862

      Baeolophus inornatus, Oak Titmouse

      Baeolophus ridgwayi, Juniper Titmouse

      Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse

      Baeolophus atricristatus, Black-crested Titmouse

      Family REMIZIDAE

      Auriparus flaviceps, Verdin


      Psaltriparus minimus, Bushtit

      Family SITTIDAE

      Subfamily SITTINAE

      Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch

      Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch

      Sitta pygmaea, Pygmy Nuthatch

      Sitta pusilla, Brown-headed Nuthatch

      Family CERTHIIDAE

      Subfamily CERTHIINAE

      Certhia americana, Brown Creeper


      Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren

      Salpinctes obsoletus, Rock Wren

      Catherpes mexicanus, Canyon Wren

      Thryothorus sinaloa, Sinaloa Wren

      Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren

      Thryomanes bewickii, Bewick's Wren

      Troglodytes aedon, House Wren

      Troglodytes pacificus, Pacific Wren

      Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren

      Cistothorus platensis, Sedge Wren

      Cistothorus palustris, Marsh Wren


      Polioptila caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher

      Polioptila californica, California Gnatcatcher

      Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher

      Polioptila nigriceps, Black-capped Gnatcatcher

      Family CINCLIDAE

      Cinclus mexicanus, American Dipper

      Family REGULIDAE

      Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet

      Regulus calendula, Ruby-crowned Kinglet


      Phylloscopus trochilus, Willow Warbler

      Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Wood Warbler

      Phylloscopus fuscatus, Dusky Warbler

      Phylloscopus proregulus, Pallas's Leaf-Warbler

      Phylloscopus inornatus, Yellow-browed Warbler

      Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler

      Family SYLVIIDAE

      Sylvia curruca, Lesser Whitethroat

      Chamaea fasciata, Wrentit


      Acrocephalus luscinia, Nightingale Reed-Warbler

      Acrocephalus familiaris, Millerbird

      Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Sedge Warbler

      Family MEGALURIDAE

      Locustella ochotensis, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler

      Locustella lanceolata, Lanceolated Warbler


      Ficedula narcissina, Narcissus Flycatcher

      Ficedula mugimaki, Mugimaki Flycatcher

      Ficedula albicilla, Taiga Flycatcher

      Muscicapa sibirica, Dark-sided Flycatcher

      Muscicapa griseisticta, Gray-streaked Flycatcher

      Muscicapa dauurica, Asian Brown Flycatcher

      Muscicapa striata, Spotted Flycatcher

      Family TURDIDAE

      Monticola solitarius, Blue Rock-Thrush

      Luscinia sibilans, Rufous-tailed Robin

      Luscinia calliope, Siberian Rubythroat

      Luscinia svecica, Bluethroat

      Luscinia cyane, Siberian Blue Robin

      Tarsiger cyanurus, Red-flanked Bluetail

      Oenanthe oenanthe, Northern Wheatear

      Saxicola torquatus, Stonechat

      Sialia sialis, Eastern Bluebird

      Sialia mexicana, Western Bluebird

      Sialia currucoides, Mountain Bluebird

      Myadestes townsendi, Townsend's Solitaire

      Myadestes myadestinus, Kamao

      Myadestes lanaiensis, Olomao

      Myadestes obscurus, Omao

      Myadestes palmeri, Puaiohi

      Catharus aurantiirostris, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush

      Catharus mexicanus, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush

      Catharus fuscescens, Veery

      Catharus minimus, Gray-cheeked Thrush

      Catharus bicknelli, Bicknell's Thrush

      Catharus ustulatus, Swainson's Thrush

      Catharus guttatus, Hermit Thrush

      Hylocichla mustelina, Wood Thrush

      Turdus obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush

      Turdus naumanni, Dusky Thrush

      Turdus pilaris, Fieldfare

      Turdus grayi, Clay-colored Thrush

      Turdus assimilis, White-throated Thrush

      Turdus rufopalliatus, Rufous-backed Robin

      Turdus migratorius, American Robin

      Turdus plumbeus, Red-legged Thrush

      Ixoreus naevius, Varied Thrush

      Ridgwayia pinicola, Aztec Thrush

      Family MIMIDAE

      Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird

      Melanoptila glabrirostris, Black Catbird

      Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird

      Mimus gundlachii, Bahama Mockingbird

      Oreoscoptes montanus, Sage Thrasher

      Toxostoma rufum, Brown Thrasher

      Toxostoma longirostre, Long-billed Thrasher

      Toxostoma bendirei, Bendire's Thrasher

      Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher

      Toxostoma redivivum, California Thrasher

      Toxostoma crissale, Crissal Thrasher

      Toxostoma lecontei, Le Conte's Thrasher

      Melanotis caerulescens, Blue Mockingbird

      Margarops fuscatus, Pearly-eyed Thrasher

      Family STURNIDAE

      Sturnus philippensis, Chestnut-cheeked Starling

      Sturnus cineraceus, White-cheeked Starling

      Family PRUNELLIDAE

      Prunella montanella, Siberian Accentor


      Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail

      Motacilla citreola, Citrine Wagtail

      Motacilla cinerea, Gray Wagtail

      Motacilla alba, White Wagtail

      Anthus trivialis, Tree Pipit

      Anthus hodgsoni, Olive-backed Pipit

      Anthus gustavi, Pechora Pipit

      Anthus cervinus, Red-throated Pipit

      Anthus rubescens, American Pipit

      Anthus spragueii, Sprague's Pipit


      Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing

      Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing


      Ptilogonys cinereus, Gray Silky-flycatcher

      Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla


      Peucedramus taeniatus, Olive Warbler

      Family CALCARIIDAE

      Calcarius lapponicus, Lapland Longspur

      Calcarius ornatus, Chestnut-collared Longspur

      Calcarius pictus, Smith's Longspur

      Rhynchophanes mccownii, McCown's Longspur

      Plectrophenax nivalis, Snow Bunting

      Plectrophenax hyperboreus, McKay's Bunting

      Family PARULIDAE

      Vermivora bachmanii, Bachman's Warbler

      Vermivora cyanoptera, Blue-winged

      Page 65863


      Vermivora chrysoptera, Golden-winged Warbler

      Oreothlypis peregrina, Tennessee Warbler

      Oreothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler

      Oreothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler

      Oreothlypis virginiae, Virginia's Warbler

      Oreothlypis crissalis, Colima Warbler

      Oreothlypis luciae, Lucy's Warbler

      Oreothlypis superciliosa, Crescent-chested Warbler

      Parula americana, Northern Parula

      Parula pitiayumi, Tropical Parula

      Dendroica petechia, Yellow Warbler

      Dendroica pensylvanica, Chestnut-sided Warbler

      Dendroica magnolia, Magnolia Warbler

      Dendroica tigrina, Cape May Warbler

      Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Blue Warbler

      Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler

      Dendroica nigrescens, Black-throated Gray Warbler

      Dendroica chrysoparia, Golden-cheeked Warbler

      Dendroica virens, Black-throated Green Warbler

      Dendroica townsendi, Townsend's Warbler

      Dendroica occidentalis, Hermit Warbler

      Dendroica fusca, Blackburnian Warbler

      Dendroica dominica, Yellow-throated Warbler

      Dendroica graciae, Grace's Warbler

      Dendroica adelaidae, Adelaide's Warbler

      Dendroica pinus, Pine Warbler

      Dendroica kirtlandii, Kirtland's Warbler

      Dendroica discolor, Prairie Warbler

      Dendroica palmarum, Palm Warbler

      Dendroica castanea, Bay-breasted Warbler

      Dendroica striata, Blackpoll Warbler

      Dendroica cerulea, Cerulean Warbler

      Dendroica angelae, Elfin-woods Warbler

      Mniotilta varia, Black-and-white Warbler

      Setophaga ruticilla, American Redstart

      Protonotaria citrea, Prothonotary Warbler

      Helmitheros vermivorum, Worm-eating Warbler

      Limnothlypis swainsonii, Swainson's Warbler

      Seiurus aurocapilla, Ovenbird

      Parkesia noveboracensis, Northern Waterthrush

      Parkesia motacilla, Louisiana Waterthrush

      Oporornis formosus, Kentucky Warbler

      Oporornis agilis, Connecticut Warbler

      Oporornis philadelphia, Mourning Warbler

      Oporornis tolmiei, MacGillivray's Warbler

      Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat

      Geothlypis poliocephala, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat

      Wilsonia citrina, Hooded Warbler

      Wilsonia pusilla, Wilson's Warbler

      Wilsonia canadensis, Canada Warbler

      Cardellina rubrifrons, Red-faced Warbler

      Myioborus pictus, Painted Redstart

      Myioborus miniatus, Slate-throated Redstart

      Euthlypis lachrymosa, Fan-tailed Warbler

      Basileuterus culicivorus, Golden-crowned Warbler

      Basileuterus rufifrons, Rufous-capped Warbler

      Icteria virens, Yellow-breasted Chat

      Family THRAUPIDAE

      Nesospingus speculiferus, Puerto Rican Tanager

      Spindalis zena, Western Spindalis

      Spindalis portoricensis, Puerto Rican Spindalis

      Family EMBERIZIDAE

      Sporophila torqueola, White-collared Seedeater

      Tiaris olivaceus, Yellow-faced Grassquit

      Tiaris bicolor, Black-faced Grassquit

      Loxigilla portoricensis, Puerto Rican Bullfinch

      Arremonops rufivirgatus, Olive Sparrow

      Pipilo chlorurus, Green-tailed Towhee

      Pipilo maculatus, Spotted Towhee

      Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee

      Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow

      Melozone fusca, Canyon Towhee

      Melozone crissalis, California Towhee

      Melozone aberti, Abert's Towhee

      Peucaea carpalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow

      Peucaea botterii, Botteri's Sparrow

      Peucaea cassinii, Cassin's Sparrow

      Peucaea aestivalis, Bachman's Sparrow

      Spizella arborea, American Tree Sparrow

      Spizella passerina, Chipping Sparrow

      Spizella pallida, Clay-colored Sparrow

      Spizella breweri, Brewer's Sparrow

      Spizella pusilla, Field Sparrow

      Spizella wortheni, Worthen's Sparrow

      Spizella atrogularis, Black-chinned Sparrow

      Pooecetes gramineus, Vesper Sparrow

      Chondestes grammacus, Lark Sparrow

      Amphispiza quinquestriata, Five-striped Sparrow

      Amphispiza bilineata, Black-throated Sparrow

      Amphispiza belli, Sage Sparrow

      Calamospiza melanocorys, Lark Bunting

      Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow

      Ammodramus savannarum, Grasshopper Sparrow

      Ammodramus bairdii, Baird's Sparrow

      Ammodramus henslowii, Henslow's Sparrow

      Ammodramus leconteii, Le Conte's Sparrow

      Ammodramus nelsoni, Nelson's Sparrow

      Ammodramus caudacutus, Saltmarsh Sparrow

      Ammodramus maritimus, Seaside Sparrow

      Passerella iliaca, Fox Sparrow

      Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow

      Melospiza lincolnii, Lincoln's Sparrow

      Melospiza georgiana, Swamp Sparrow

      Zonotrichia albicollis, White-throated Sparrow

      Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow

      Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow

      Zonotrichia atricapilla, Golden-crowned Sparrow

      Junco hyemalis, Dark-eyed Junco

      Junco phaeonotus, Yellow-eyed Junco

      Emberiza leucocephalos, Pine Bunting

      Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-browed Bunting

      Emberiza pusilla, Little Bunting

      Emberiza rustica, Rustic Bunting

      Emberiza elegans, Yellow-throated Bunting

      Emberiza aureola, Yellow-breasted Bunting

      Emberiza variabilis, Gray Bunting

      Emberiza pallasi, Pallas's Bunting

      Emberiza schoeniclus, Reed Bunting


      Piranga flava, Hepatic Tanager

      Piranga rubra, Summer Tanager

      Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager

      Piranga ludoviciana, Western Tanager

      Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager

      Rhodothraupis celaeno, Crimson-collared Grosbeak

      Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal

      Cardinalis sinuatus, Pyrrhuloxia

      Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Yellow Grosbeak

      Pheucticus ludovicianus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak

      Pheucticus melanocephalus, Black-headed Grosbeak

      Page 65864

      Cyanocompsa parellina, Blue Bunting

      Passerina caerulea, Blue Grosbeak

      Passerina amoena, Lazuli Bunting

      Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting

      Passerina versicolor, Varied Bunting

      Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting

      Spiza americana, Dickcissel

      Family ICTERIDAE

      Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Bobolink

      Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird

      Agelaius tricolor, Tricolored Blackbird

      Agelaius humeralis, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird

      Agelaius xanthomus, Yellow-shouldered Blackbird

      Sturnella magna, Eastern Meadowlark

      Sturnella neglecta, Western Meadowlark

      Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Yellow-headed Blackbird

      Euphagus carolinus, Rusty Blackbird

      Euphagus cyanocephalus, Brewer's Blackbird

      Quiscalus quiscula, Common Grackle

      Quiscalus major, Boat-tailed Grackle

      Quiscalus mexicanus, Great-tailed Grackle

      Quiscalus niger, Greater Antillean Grackle

      Molothrus bonariensis, Shiny Cowbird

      Molothrus aeneus, Bronzed Cowbird

      Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird

      Icterus portoricensis, Puerto Rican Oriole

      Icterus wagleri, Black-vented Oriole

      Icterus spurius, Orchard Oriole

      Icterus cucullatus, Hooded Oriole

      Icterus pustulatus, Streak-backed Oriole

      Icterus bullockii, Bullock's Oriole

      Icterus gularis, Altamira Oriole

      Icterus graduacauda, Audubon's Oriole

      Icterus galbula, Baltimore Oriole

      Icterus parisorum, Scott's Oriole


      Subfamily FRINGILLINAE

      Fringilla coelebs, Common Chaffinch

      Fringilla montifringilla, Brambling

      Subfamily EUPHONIINAE

      Euphonia musica, Antillean Euphonia

      Subfamily CARDUELINAE

      Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch

      Leucosticte atrata, Black Rosy-Finch

      Leucosticte australis, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch

      Pinicola enucleator, Pine Grosbeak

      Carpodacus erythrinus, Common Rosefinch

      Carpodacus purpureus, Purple Finch

      Carpodacus cassinii, Cassin's Finch

      Carpodacus mexicanus, House Finch

      Loxia curvirostra, Red Crossbill

      Loxia leucoptera, White-winged Crossbill

      Acanthis flammea, Common Redpoll

      Acanthis hornemanni, Hoary Redpoll

      Spinus spinus, Eurasian Siskin

      Spinus pinus, Pine Siskin

      Spinus psaltria, Lesser Goldfinch

      Spinus lawrencei, Lawrence's Goldfinch

      Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch

      Chloris sinica, Oriental Greenfinch

      Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Eurasian Bullfinch

      Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak

      Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Hawfinch

      Subfamily DREPANIDINAE

      Telespiza cantans, Laysan Finch

      Telespiza ultima, Nihoa Finch

      Psittirostra psittacea, Ou

      Loxioides bailleui, Palila

      Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Maui Parrotbill

      Hemignathus virens, Hawaii Amakihi

      Hemignathus flavus, Oahu Amakihi

      Hemignathus kauaiensis, Kauai Amakihi

      Hemignathus ellisianus, Greater Akialoa

      Hemignathus lucidus, Nukupuu

      Hemignathus munroi, Akiapolaau

      Magumma parva, Anianiau

      Oreomystis bairdi, Akikiki

      Oreomystis mana, Hawaii Creeper

      Paroreomyza maculata, Oahu Alauahio

      Paroreomyza flammea, Kakawahie

      Paroreomyza montana, Maui Alauahio

      Loxops caeruleirostris, Akekee

      Loxops coccineus, Akepa

      Vestiaria coccinea, Iiwi

      Palmeria dolei, Akohekohe

      Himatione sanguinea, Apapane

      Melamprosops phaeosoma, Poo-uli

      PART 21--AMENDED


    3. Revise the authority citation for part 21 to read as follows:

      Authority: Pub. L. 65-186, 40 Stat. 755 (1918) (16 U.S.C. 703-

      712), as amended.

      Sec. 21.3 Amended


    4. In Sec. 21.3, amend the definition of ``Raptor'' by adding the words ``the Order Accipitriformes,'' immediately before the words ``the Order Falconiformes'' and adding a comma after ``Falconiformes''.

      Dated: September 17, 2013.

      Michael J. Bean,

      Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks.

      FR Doc. 2013-26061 Filed 10-31-13; 8:45 am

      BILLING CODE 4310-55-P